Syllabus Issues

May 15, 2015

Version 7.5 of the Australian Curriculum was released today:

March 31, 2015

Version 7.4 of the Australian Curriculum was released today. Note however that the senior one is the same as version 7.3.

January 5, 2015

Version 7.3 of the Australian Curriculum was released today.

December 13, 2014

National curriculum for Years 11 and 12 is now shelved. Here is The Australian article: http://4unitmaths.com/nc-y11-12shelved.pdf

October 12, 2014

Review of National Curriculum Final Report

October 8, 2014

Version 7.2 of the Australian Curriculum was released today.

August 25, 2014

Version 7.1 of the Australian Curriculum was released today.

August 11, 2014

Proposed changes to the NSW Calculus-based courses

BOSTES has announced proposed changes to the NSW Calculus-based courses today.

Here are the proposed changes in content for the calculus-based courses on page 22 of http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/australian-curriculum/pdf_doc/senior-secondary-evaluation-2014-08.pdf

Preliminary Mathematics 2 Unit

Approximately six topics focusing on areas of Mathematics such as real numbers, algebra, functions, graphs, geometry, trigonometry, differential calculus, sequences and series, and descriptive statistics.

A number of modelling topics focusing on applications of Mathematics from other topics in the Preliminary course and utilising techniques from other topics in the course and earlier courses, such as applications involving real functions and applications of series to finance.

HSC Mathematics 2 Unit

Approximately six topics focusing on areas of Mathematics such as differential calculus, integral calculus, probability, trigonometry, exponential and logarithmic functions, descriptive statistics, and random variables.

A number of modelling topics focusing on applications of Mathematics from other topics in the HSC course, and utilising techniques from other topics in the course and earlier courses, such as applications involving probability and finance, applications to the natural environment.

Preliminary Mathematics Extension 1

Approximately six topics focusing on areas of Mathematics such as circle geometry, further algebra, polynomials, functions, graphs, trigonometry, series, elementary difference equations, random variables, and the normal distribution.

HSC Mathematics Extension 1

Approximately six topics focusing on areas of Mathematics such as mathematical induction, binomial theorem, methods and applications of integration, further trigonometry, inverse functions and the inverse trigonometric functions, and further applications of calculus.

Mathematics Extension 2

Approximately eight topics focusing on areas of Mathematics such as further inequalities, complex numbers, polynomials, functions, graphs, vectors, integration techniques, volumes, modelling with functions and derivatives, mechanics, difference equations, and statistical inference.

July 21, 2014

Version 7.0 of the Australian Curriculum was released today.

February 28, 2014

Response to Inquiry into the Australian Curriculum

February 18, 2014

Version 6.0 of the Australian Curriculum was released today.

January 10, 2014

Today the government announced a review of the national curriculum.

December 24, 2013

Version 5.2 of the Australian Curriculum was released today.

July 16, 2013

Kenneth Wiltshire argues in The Australian newspaper that "the national school curriculum is no longer national, with states opting out of many aspects; the content of the curriculum itself is poor and patchy and has been condemned by experts in just about every discipline.":

Education never very high on pm's agenda

May 20, 2013

Version 5.0 of F-10 was published today by ACARA.

March 13, 2013

Version 4.2 of F-10 released

January 31, 2013

Version 4.1 of F-10 published with the following changes:

General Capabilities Learning Continua – Revised and additional levels included

Overview revised

Literacy and Numeracy introductions revised to address student diversity

Title of Ethical behaviour changed to Ethical understanding

General capabilities identified at element level in learning area content descriptions

Student Diversity support materials published

January 3, 2013

SMH article condemning the national curriculum:

http://www.smh.com.au/national/education/simple-maths-sums-up-as-a-prime-mover-20130102-2c5nf.html

December 14, 2012

Summary of changes to General Maths by Robert Yen

Note that in 2013 Year 12 general students use this syllabus:

http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/syllabus_hsc/pdf_doc/maths_general_syl_2012.pdf

and Year 11 general students use this syllabus:

http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/syllabus_hsc/pdf_doc/maths-general-syl-2013-and-beyond.pdf

December 13, 2012

ACARA has released version 4.0 of the F-10 national curriculum.

December 12, 2012

ACARA has released the updated senior national curriculum:

http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/Static/docs/senior%20secondary/Senior%20Secondary%20Curriculum%20-%20Essential%20Mathematics%20November%202012.pdf

http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/Static/docs/senior%20secondary/Senior%20Secondary%20Curriculum%20-%20General%20Mathematics%20November%202012.pdf

http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/Static/docs/senior%20secondary/Senior%20Secondary%20Curriculum%20-%20Mathematical%20Methods%20November%202012.pdf

http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/Static/docs/senior%20secondary/Senior%20Secondary%20Curriculum%20-%20Specialist%20Mathematics%20November%202012.pdf

December 10, 2012

ACARA has released glossaries for the senior national curriculum:

http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/Static/docs/senior%20secondary/Essential%20Mathematics%20Glossary.pdf

http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/Static/docs/senior%20secondary/General%20Mathematics%20Glossary.pdf

http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/Static/docs/senior%20secondary/Mathematical%20Methods%20Glossary.pdf

http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/Static/docs/senior%20secondary/Specialist%20Mathematics%20Glossary.pdf

December 7, 2012

The SCSEEC has released the Communiqué for the meeting wherein the state ministers endorsed the national curriculum:

http://scseec.edu.au/site/DefaultSite/filesystem/documents/Communiques%20and%20Media%20Releases/2012%20Communiques/SC03%20Communique%20(7%20December%202012).pdf

October 16, 2012

Final K-10 Syllabus released

September 18, 2012

Today there was a Board of Studies meeting wherein the draft senior national curriculum was declared inferior:

http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/australian-curriculum/pdf_doc/draft-ssac-maths-consultation-report-12.pdf

Note that it is still in draft form, so ACARA still have time to fix it.

But if they don't then I won't hold my breath for when it will be implemented in NSW.

June 11, 2012

Mike Hirschhorn today wrote a letter to the SMH complaining that the traditional mathematics curriculum in NSW established by Horatio Carslaw and Thomas Room many decades ago - which has its origins in the ancient world - would be swept out of our talented pupils' experience by the national curriculum. What a travesty. What a disaster for the ''clever country''.

June 7, 2012

SMH article suggests ACARA's new senior syllabus is still inferior.

As I have previously said on this website, on September 27, 2010 at the ACACA conference I asked the President of the NSW Board of Studies, Tom Alegounarias, that if ACARA cannot maintain the standards that we currently have in NSW, would the NSW Board of Studies still accept the national curriculum? He said that they will not accept it.

May 10, 2012

New draft senior syllabuses released by ACARA:

Essential ; General ; Methods ; Specialist

April 29, 2012

Extract of submission to version 2 of the 7-10 draft syllabus

February 13, 2012

Version 2 of the K-10 draft syllabus is now available.

January 23, 2012

New F-10 curriculum Version 3 is now available at http://www.angelfire.com/ab7/fourunit/f-10v3.0.pdf

October 17, 2011

New F-10 curriculum Version 2 is now available at http://www.angelfire.com/ab7/fourunit/f-10v2.0.pdf

October 15, 2011

After Pyne's failed amendment from March 21, Peter Garrett introduced the Schools Assistance Amendment Bill 2011 on June 22 which subsequently passed parliament, was given royal assent yesterday and takes effect today as the Schools Assistance Amendment Act 2011:

Schools Assistance Act 2008

1 Section 22

Repeal the section, substitute:

22 Funding agreements—national curriculum

(1) A funding agreement for a non‑systemic school, or an approved school system, must require the relevant authority for the school or system to ensure that the school, or each school in the system, implements the national curriculum prescribed by the regulations in accordance with the regulations.

(2) Despite subsection 14(2) of the Legislative Instruments Act 2003, regulations made for the purposes of this section may make provision in relation to a matter by applying, adopting or incorporating, with or without modification, any matter contained in an instrument or other writing as in force or existing from time to time.

http://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/C2011A00122

October 14, 2011

State ministers have endorsed the final F-10 curriculum:

http://www.mceecdya.edu.au/verve/_resources/C13_Communique_-_FINAL.pdf

Note also that the format of the Extension 2 paper will change next year to 10 multiple choice and 6 free response questions and the Board of Studies have released some sample MC questions.

August 21, 2011

Extract of Response to K-10 Draft Syllabus

August 9, 2011

The NSW Minister of Education, Adrian Piccoli has decreed that the Australian Curriculum will NOT be implemented in NSW in 2013 as originally planned:

http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/australian-curriculum/pdf_doc/media-release-110809-australian-curriculum.pdf

July 9, 2011

The new NSW minister for Education, Adrian Piccoli (who replaces Verity Firth after the March election), has warned he will not approve the national curriculum in October if it is inferior to the curriculum now used in the state's schools:

http://www.smh.com.au/national/nsw-fears-new-curriculum-wont-make-grade-20110708-1h6ub.html

Whilst the NSW Board of Studies has said on their website that schools are reminded that in NSW they are required to deliver courses of study that comply with the requirements of NSW Board syllabuses this nevertheless is only true if the Minister has approved it. So even if ACARA and the Board of Studies finalise their syllabuses, they won't be implemented in NSW schools unless Piccoli approves it.

A new approved syllabus should be in schools 1 year before implementation and Term 1, 2013 starts on January 29. It has been said that the new curriculum will be implemented in 2013. So Piccoli has until January 29, 2012 to approve it or else it will NOT be implemented in NSW in 2013.

June 14, 2011

K-10 Draft Syllabus released for consultation by August 22:

http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/australian-curriculum/k-10-eng-maths-sci-hist.html

March 21, 2011

Due to MCEECDYA not endorsing the national curriculum on December 8 last year, Christopher Pyne's October 28 motion from last year was not voted on on February 10 this year. Nevertheless due to the Schools Assistance Act 2008 stipulating that schools should implement the national curriculum by January 31, 2012, Pyne has today introduced the following amendment:

Mr PYNE (Sturt) (3.40 pm)—I move opposition amendment (1):

(1) Schedule 1, after item 3, page 3 (after line 17), insert:

3A Subsection 22(2)

Omit “31 January 2012”, substitute “a date set by the Minister by legislative instrument”.

3B After subsection 22(2)

Insert:

(3) The Minister may not set a date for subsection (2) that is earlier than the date by which he or she is satisfied the national curriculum will be implemented in government schools in each State and Territory.

(4) If it appears that the national curriculum will be not be implemented in government schools in each State and Territory by the date that has been set for subsection (2), the Minister must set a later date.

This was voted on today but defeated, Ayes:69 ; Noes: 71.

March 8, 2011

Version 1.2 of F-10:http://www.angelfire.com/ab7/fourunit/f-10v1.2.pdf

December 13, 2010

Version 1.1 of F-10: http://www.angelfire.com/ab7/fourunit/f-10v1.1.pdf

December 8, 2010

The State ministers of education met today and were to endorse the K-10 national curriculum. But the NSW minister, Verity Firth, said that it isn't ready for implementation and so ACARA have until October 2011 to finalise it:

http://www.mceecdya.edu.au/verve/_resources/C07_Communique_8_Dec_2010.pdf

http://www.smh.com.au/national/education/national-curriculum-on-hold-until-october-20101208-18pxa.html

ACARA have released an updated version at http://www.angelfire.com/ab7/fourunit/f-10v1.0.pdf but this will NOT be the final version.

November 26, 2010

Whilst I am disappointed about the plight of Pyne's motion, nevertheless it is the state ministers who have the constitutional authority regarding implementation of curricula in schools, which is why ACARA need them to sign up to the national curriculum on December 8 if it is to proceed any further. But today there is a SMH article saying that acting on advice from the NSW Board of Studies, Verity Firth will reject it and not sign NSW up to it:

http://www.smh.com.au/national/education/nsw-poised-to-reject-underprepared-curriculum-20101125-18961.html

November 25, 2010

Pyne's national curriculum motion was not voted on today, but Pyne moved an amendment to a motion put by the Leader of the House which would have allowed that to happen:

That the following words be added to the motion:

“And (2) that the private Members’ business item No. 3, national curriculum motion standing in the name of the member for Sturt on the Notice Paper be returned from the Main Committee and considered immediately.”

This amendment was voted on today, but unfortunately was lost: Ayes 73, Noes 74.

Voting on Pyne's national curriculum motion has thus been delayed till February 10, 2011.

November 24, 2010

The delay imposed on the voting on Pyne's motion could mean it is doomed to become moot. The Leader of the House of Representatives, Anthony Albanese, has said that there will not be enough time on Thursday to vote on Pyne's motion. This will delay voting till at least February 2011.

Evidently the Labor Party have imposed the delay to protect ACARA from the Parliament. But nobody voted for the members of ACARA!

November 23, 2010

The NSW Board of Studies has met today and has rejected the national curriculum. They will be advising the minister accordingly.

November 18, 2010

Pyne's national curriculum motion was supposed to be voted on today, but wasn't. Voting has been delayed till November 25, 2010.

October 29, 2010

Statement from Barry McGaw, Chair of ACARA 29th October 2010:

MATHEMATICS - FINAL REVIEW from ACARA

October 28, 2010

Christopher Pyne has introduced the following motion to the House of Representatives to delay the implementation of the national curriculum:

Mr Pyne to move

That this House:

(1) expresses its concern that the Government’s deadline to have the national curriculum available for implementation from January 2011 will result in a substandard curriculum; and

(2) requires the Government to delay the implementation of the national curriculum until January 2012 for K-10 in the areas of English, maths, science and history.

September 30, 2010

Denis Fitzgerald from the NSW Board of Studies has told the NSW Minister for Education to reject the inferior national curriculum when education ministers meet to endorse it in December:

http://www.smh.com.au/national/education/curriculum-battle-wages-on-over-latest-draft-20100929-15xiq.html

It would be good if the minister does not endorse it. One problem however is the Schools Assistance Act 2008 Division 3 Subdivision B Section 22 says:

22 Funding agreements—national curriculum

(1) A funding agreement for a non-systemic school, or an approved school system, must require the relevant authority for the school or system to ensure that the school, or each school in the system, implements the national curriculum prescribed by the regulations for primary education or secondary education (or both, as applicable).

(2) The requirement mentioned in subsection (1) must be satisfied on or before 31 January 2012.

http://www.comlaw.gov.au/ComLaw/legislation/act1.nsf/0/B102162DDE9537D2CA25752200036F07/$file/1532008.pdf

September 27, 2010

Due to problems identified in submissions ACARA has decided to delay the process on national curriculum development. It was supposed to be approved by ministers next month, but is now delayed till December:

http://www.smh.com.au/opinion/blogs/learning-curve/will-nsw-students-go-backwards-under-a-national-curriculum/20100927-15tc3.html

Today at the 2010 ACACA conference I had lunch with the President of the NSW Board of Studies, Tom Alegounarias, and I specifically asked him that if ACARA cannot maintain the standards that we currently have in NSW, would the NSW Board of Studies still accept the national curriculum? He said that they will not accept it.

This will be 1993 all over again.

September 24, 2010

Recall that on July 2, 1993, and again on December 3, 1993, the Australian Education Council decided not to endorse a national curriculum framework which it had developed over the period 1989-1993:

http://www.aare.edu.au/data/publications/1994/clemm94392.pdf

Barry McGaw says it's taken 20 years to get it right. I say it's taken 20 years for them to get it wrong! Again! And they think they can fix it in a few weeks?

http://www.smh.com.au/national/education/more-time-to-work-on-new-curriculum-20100923-15ovw.html

September 17, 2010

NSW cans 'inferior' national curriculum SMH article wherein the NSW Education minister, Verity Firth, says that NSW will not accept a curriculum that is not as good as the current NSW curriculum.

MANSW has submitted their submission in which they argue that the Australian Curriculum does not provide the appropriate degree of difficulty, challenge and preparation for the very gifted mathematics student who would be better served by the current NSW HSC courses. The needs of senior students intending to study the quantitative disciplines at university are not addressed in the Australian Curriculum as well as they are currently with the existing NSW HSC courses.

So let's hope Verity Firth is telling the truth this time. For if she is then we need a pronouncement from the NSW government that NSW will not accept the Australian Curriculum.

Also, the Board of Studies has deferred the introduction of revised Stage 6 mathematics HSC assessment requirements and exam specifications until Year 12, 2012, i.e., there will be no MC in next years 2/3/4 unit exams as originally planned:

http://news.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/index.cfm/2010/9/17/Revised-mathematics-HSC-assessment-and-exam-specifications--deferred

September 13, 2010

Shattering fallout for students in NSW SMH article wherein Bill Pender says the national curriculum is a disaster waiting to happen for NSW schools.

New curriculum slammed by studies board SMH article wherein the Board of Studies warns that the national curriculum is vastly inferior to the existing NSW curriculum and Jenny Allum says that we should not accept anything inferior to what we already have.

At this stage, schools should make their position clear to both the NSW and Federal Governments and make public pronouncements to the effect that they intend to refuse to implement the national curriculum in their schools.

September 8, 2010

According Marty Ross in the synopsis to MANSW's 2010 conference, the draft national curriculum captures little of what mathematics is, nor of what it means to think mathematically. This has clear and broad implications for the teaching of all students. The curriculum is lacking in its fundamental sense of mathematics.

Then unless it is vastly improved, all maths teachers should ignore the national curriculum.

August 17, 2010

SMH article, Numbers up for rote learning in maths, about the ACER conference in Melbourne wherein they argue for more problem solving in the national curriculum and emphasis on why things are true, rather than rote learning.

Whilst we may agree with this, so far however this doesn't seem to be achieved in the national curriculum.

August 6, 2010

Despite the new NSW syllabuses not being approved for implementation by the Minister and the national curriculum not being finalised, the Board of Studies nevertheless want to go ahead anyway with multiple choice questions in the HSC exams in 2012. They have released some new sample HSC questions for Mathematics Extension 2 and I completed the survey wherein I said that there should be no multiple choice questions at this level.

July 30, 2010

Submission to ACARA for the 11-12 national syllabus

July 23, 2010

Bill Pender's letter to the President of the NSW Board of Studies recommending that "the NSW Board of Studies not accept ACARA's proposals for Years 11-12".

June 28, 2010

The draft curricula will be redrafted later this year based on the current consultation round and a second consultation will take place over Feb-Apr next year with a final version mid next year.

Source: "My Impressions" by Leon Poladian:

poladian.pdf

May 30, 2010

Submission to ACARA for the K-10 national syllabus

May 20, 2010

Bill Pender's letter to the President of the NSW Board of Studies recommending that "the NSW Board of Studies not accept the Draft K–10 Mathematics Syllabus as proposed by ACARA for the National Curriculum".

May 15, 2010

Here is an mp3 of Verity Firth on 2GB radio yesterday defending the national curriculum:

http://4unitmaths.com/acara14.5.2010.mp3 saying

"We're committed to a national curriculum. But we're not committed to a process that waters down the high standards we have in New South Wales. But we don't believe that will happen. We believe that with proper consultation we'll actually have a situation where everyone will be raised up and that there won't be a sense of a watering down of anyone's standards."

She is of course lying.

There is also an article about it in the Sydney Morning Herald today directly contradicting what she said on 2GB:

http://www.smh.com.au/national/education/national-curriculum-content-not-up-to-scratch-critics-20100514-v4gt.html

May 14, 2010

The 11-12 national curriculum was released today at http://www.angelfire.com/ab7/fourunit/11-12v1.1.0.pdf

Recommended Readings for New Topics:

Balakrishnan, V.K., Graph Theory, McGraw-Hill, 1997

Bronson, R., Differential Equations, McGraw-Hill, 1973

Bronson, R., Matrix Operations, McGraw-Hill, 1989

Lipschutz, S., Linear Algebra, McGraw-Hill, 1968

Spiegel, M.R., Statistics, McGraw-Hill, 1961

Spiegel, M.R., Vector Analysis, McGraw-Hill, 1959 (Chapters 1 and 2 only)

all of which are available for free download on the net and they look great on the iPad.

May 10, 2010

It has come to my attention that there is yet another delay on the release of the senior national curriculum. It was supposed to be released in April. Then on May 3. Now they say mid-May.

March 17, 2010

NSW mathematicians are now complaining about the new national mathematics curriculum. There are many errors in the document arising from a lack of understanding of basic mathematics. If it is implemented, NSW students will pay the price for the decline in standards in some other states. If we avoid hard topics because some students may struggle, the better students will be seriously disadvantaged. We shouldn't hide hard concepts or turn mathematics into a black box exercise.

http://www.angelfire.com/ab7/fourunit/unswletters.pdf

Clearly these problems arise from the sad fact that the curriculum is being written by amateurs who are not properly trained in mathematics.

March 7, 2010

K-10 Version 1.0.1: http://www.angelfire.com/ab7/fourunit/draft-k-10v1.0.1.pdf

March 4, 2010

There were some concerns raised in The Age newspaper today at http://www.theage.com.au/opinion/society-and-culture/new-maths-curriculum-a-feeble-tool-calculated-to-bore-20100303-pivw.html about the new draft K-10 syllabus released on 1.3.2010 by ACARA at http://www.angelfire.com/ab7/fourunit/draft-k-10v1.0.pdf. This does not augur well for any proposed 11-12 syllabus, since this K-10 syllabus will be assumed knowledge for the 11-12 one. It is also likely the folly of the K-10 one will be replicated in the 11-12 one.

January 27, 2010

Day 1 of NOT implementing the new syllabus

Well we were told that the new syllabus is to be implemented in 2010. And then we were told it isn't.

Then we were told it will be implemented in 2011. And then we were told it isn't.

Do you see a pattern here?

It will never be implemented!

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2009

Submission for the National Curriculum in the Senior Secondary Years Position Paper

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Elementary proof of the probability integral

Although 4 unit students can understand it, many from other states won't be able to understand it.

ACARA are creating a mess. They are deliberately keeping everything as vague as possible. Also, they are often contradicting themselves. It's becoming a farce.

The BOS said their syllabus is to be implemented in 2010. Now they are saying to use the old syllabus in 2010.

ACARA are saying theirs is for implementation in 2011. But with a 1-year-in-schools-first rule, coupled with the fact the national syllabus won't be ready till the middle of 2010, it is clear it won't be implemented in 2011.

Some have suggested this farce has gone on long enough and have said a new syllabus from the BOS or ACARA will never be implemented.

All we are getting is constant vagueness, contradictions and delays.

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The NCB have been replaced by ACARA which extends their influence from strictly only curriculum to also now include assessment and reporting, in accordance with the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority Act, 2008. Their new website is www.acara.edu.au

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The NCB have released the updated shape paper for mathematics and consultation report

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More Delays

The decision taken at the last Board of Studies meeting on March 31 regarding the implementation of new Stage 6 Maths curriculum is as follows.

The Board of Studies agreed:

(i) to endorse the Stage 6 Mathematics syllabuses.

(ii) to advise the Minister not to approve the Stage 6 Mathematics syllabuses for implementation at this time pending the outcomes of the national curriculum development.

(iii) that the Board use the Stage 6 Mathematics syllabuses as the basis of its advice to the National Curriculum Board concerning the national syllabuses.

(iv) that the issue be revisited at its December 2009 meeting to consider progress of the national Stage 6 Mathematics syllabus.

The Office of the Board wanted to hold off implementation indefinitely, pending National Curriculum development, however the teacher reps on the Board opposed this because: The current syllabuses were not reviewed in 1996 as others were and are therefore dated; the new syllabuses are ready and teachers want them – especially new courses; it is unknown when the National Curriculum will be implemented, especially in stage 6.

The result of the debate was that the Board decided to review the decision to implement in December.

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Submission for the National Mathematics Curriculum Framing Paper

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The Delay.

The Syllabus was due for release December 2008.

Due to confusion in the Drafts, Bill Pender said in his submission that the only reasonable thing to do is to delay the release of the Syllabus. But of course the Board of Studies in their unreasonableness decided to not delay it. That is, until the Minister told them to delay it. So it will now be delayed.

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2008

New draft syllabus

Sample HSC Questions for the Draft Syllabus

Submission for Draft Syllabus

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2007

New Topics for the Draft Writing Brief and Writing Brief

Extract of Response to the Draft Writing Brief

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2006

Submission for Stage 6 Syllabus Review

1989

Third 4 unit syllabus (i.e., current syllabus)

1980

Second 4 unit syllabus

1973

First 4 unit syllabus

1965

Level 1 syllabus