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George Robert Hughes and Charlotte Prentice

My original information about this couple and their descendants was found at two websites: Ancestry World Tree: Hughes Family Tree (which is no longer freely accessible) and RootsWeb's WorldConnect Project: Schipp Family Tree. According to these pages Charlotte had a middle name, Isabella, but I have not found this name in any of the records I have seen. George Hughes' middle name, Robert, appears on his death certificate.

GR Hughes
George Robert Hughes
Charlotte Hughes
Charlotte Hughes

Yorkshire Origins

George Robert Hughes and Charlotte Prentice were married on 15/5/1826 at St Peters in Leeds, Yorkshire, England.

According to the Hughes Family Tree and Schipp Family Tree websites, George Robert Hughes was born in London on or about 17/2/1799. An alternative theory (given in an LDS pedigree resource file submission) says that George was born at Leeds on 6/8/1800, his parents being James Hughs and Mary Colshaw, who were married on 17/10/1798 in Leeds St Peters. Within five years of this marriage three children of James Hughes were baptized in St Peters: Sarah (baptized on 10/2/1799), George (baptized on 28/9/1800), and Harriet (baptized on 11/4/1803). Of course there is no guarantee that the father was the same James Hughes on each occasion; moreover, the mother's name was not recorded.

I have not been able to discover anything about Harriet Hughes, but I have perhaps discovered something about Sarah. This is presented at the bottom of this page.

The web pages referred to above say that Charlotte Prentice was born in Leeds on or about 13/12/1805. However, it may be that a transcription error has occurred and the the year of baptism should be 1806 rather than 1805, because according to another web page, namely Prentices of Bilton Ainsty, Braham, Thorp Acres, Walsall and Thorp Arch, England and Hobart, Australia, there was a Charlotte Prentis, daughter of Joseph and Isabella Prentis of Thorp Arch, Yorkshire, baptized on 13/12/1806. Joseph Prentis, who was a carpenter, was baptized on 22/3/1766 and died on 21/11/1819; he married Isabella Wilson (17703/3/1860) on 6/5/1800.

On 29/6/1910 the Adelaide newspaper The Advertiser reported on the diamond wedding celebrations of Mr and Mrs W. F. Hughes of Bleakside Farm, Woodside, South Australia. The article includes the following pieces of information: "Mr Hughes arrived in South Australia in the Barque Diadem ... in 1840"; "He was born in Leeds"; "Mr Hughes' parents and three brothers (John, George and Joseph) accompanied him to South Australia".

It is recorded that the Diadem left London on 31/6/1840 and arrived at Port Adelaide on 16/11/1840. Di Cummings has compiled a list of the passengers, which has this about the Hughes family:

     HUGHES George Robert (b.1799 London ENG), wife Charlotte
     HUGHES children (William Frederick?), John Prentice, Joseph Prentice James
GRH DeathCert CH DeathCert
Death certificates of Geo R Hughes and Charlotte Hughes

However, this information is not simply a transcription of an original passenger list document, but is based on deductions from various sources (whose identity is not clear). An original passenger list would not have included passenger birth information, and I suspect that the claim that George Robert Hughes was born in London in 1799 is based on the same research used by the Hughes Family Tree and Schipp Family Tree websites. I think it far more likely that he was born in Yorkshire. Note also that the Di Cummings passenger list does not mention William Frederick Hughes' brother George.

I do not know whether to accept that Joseph Prentice Hughes' full name was Joseph Prentice James Hughes. The South Australian marriage index and death index both list him just as Joseph Prentice Hughes, and similarly his entry in the Biographical Index of South Australians does not mention the name James.

It is likely that an original passenger list included the names George Robert Hughes and Charlotte Hughes, but did not name the children who accompanied them. Nevertheless, we can be sure that William Frederick Hughes' brother Joseph was Joseph Prentice Hughes; he is mentioned in the Biographical Index of South Australians 1836–1885, with the information that his parents were named George Robert and Charlotte, and that he arrived on the Diadem in 1840. And William Frederick Hughes' brother John is surely the John Prentice Hughes who was buried at Willowie on 1/12/1904. The fact that John and Joseph were both given the second name Prentice is a clear indication that Prentice was their mother's maiden name, and so we can confidently deduce that their parents were the couple married in Leeds in 1826.

According to their death certificates, George Robert Hughes was 73 when he died on 29/12/1872, and Charlotte Hughes was 79 when she died on 29/9/1884. However, a newspaper death notice said that Charlotte was in her 79th year, which means 78 years old. So 13/12/1806 and 13/12/1805 are both plausible baptism dates, consistent with the data I have. I think it probable that George Robert Hughes was the George Hughes baptized in Leeds on 28/9/1800. Perhaps he was almost a year old at his baptism, or perhaps he was only 72 when he died.

GRH Death Notice
The Register, 31/12/1872
CH Death Notice
The Register, 1/10/1884

Baptism records exist for at least some of the children of George and Charlotte Hughes. I think it unlikely that there were two or more couples named George and Charlotte Hughes producing children in Leeds or nearby in the 1820's and 1830's, and very unlikely that there was another George Robert Hughes with a wife named Charlotte in the Leeds area at this time. So it appears that the following baptisms all relate to the same family.

The fact that William and Joseph were baptized in Boston Spa seems to me to support the conjecture that Charlotte Hughes was the daughter of Joseph and Isabella Prentis born in Thorp Arch, since Thorp Arch and Boston Spa are right alongside one another, on opposite banks of the River Wharfe. (See Google's map of the area.)

It is a little worrying that James was baptized in Wakefield, the best part of ten miles from Leeds and twenty from Thorp Arch. But surely there could not have been two Hughes couples named George Robert and Charlotte in this part of Yorkshire!

Since John Prentice Hughes was 71 when he died on 30/11/1904, I believe that he must have been the "John Francis" baptized on 12/1/1834. At first I thought that the parish register must have had the name written as Prentis, which was then wrongly transcribed as Francis. But I have now seen an image of the parish register page (courtesy of and it definitely says Francis. So I guess that the minister just wrote Francis by mistake (or perhaps transcribed incorrectly from some temporary record). George and Charlotte would surely not have had two children named John born so close together, unless they were twins, and if there were twin Johns then the parish register would surely have recorded two baptisms. There is no doubt that John Prentice Hughes existed, travelled to Australia with his parents, married Elizabeth Jane Hillman in 1855, raised a large family, and died at Willowie in 1904. But there is no record of John Francis after the baptism.

The William baptized on 2/8/1829 was undoubtedly my great great grandfather William Frederick Hughes. The pedigree resource file submission mentioned above gives his birth date as 19/1/1828. Whether the birth date appears in the original parish register entry, or whether the person who submitted the information had access to some information handed down through the family, I do not know; however, his obituary in The Advertiser of 31/8/1921 says "he celebrated the ninety-third anniversary of his birth in January last", which is consistent with 19/1/1828 as William Frederick's birth date.

The pedigree resource file submission also gives 20/10/1833 as the birth date of John Prentice Hughes. It could very well be correct, but I cannot confirm it.

There are burial records that probably correspond to Elizabeth Hughes (baptized 15/5/1831) and James Hughes (baptized 4/12/1836). Elizabeth Hughes, daughter of George and Charlotte, was buried in Leeds on 25/3/1834, and James Hughes, son of George, was buried in Wakefield on 12/3/1837. Since the first daughter, Jane, did not travel to Australia with the rest of the family, presumably she must also have died.

The Register 14/11/1921

We know that as well as William Frederick, Joseph Prentice and John Prentice, George and Charlotte also had a son named George Robert with them on the voyage to Australia. According to a newspaper death notice, this second George Robert Hughes was in his 83rd year when he died on 11/11/1921. In fact he was in his 84th year: his birth certificate shows that he was born on 26/12/1837.

GRHII birth

On his immigration application (no. 8516, dated 16/5/1840), George Robert Hughes gave his occupation as "tailor and agricultural labourer" and his address as "Boston, near Wetherby". He gave his age as 38 and Charlotte's as 33, and the ages of the children as 11, 7, 2 and 1 month. It is quite possible that he deliberately understated his age in the belief that younger immigrants were preferred.

The two-year-old child was George Robert, whose second birthday was on 26/12/1839. The one month old child must have been Joseph, who was baptized three weeks later, on 7/6/1840.

Hughes memorabilia inherited by my cousin Peter Hughes (in accordance with the "eldest male heir" custom) includes his great great great grandfather's "tailor scissors", bearing the inscription "G. R. Hughes, Diadem, 1840".

The tailor's scissors scissor inscription

George and Charlotte in South Australia

George and Charlotte had three daughters and one son born in Australia. Their names were Elizabeth Isabella, Charlotte Jane, Mary Ann and James Henry. So I believe that George and Charlotte had eleven children altogether:

No birth certificate exists for James Henry Hughes; the birth date given above, provided by his descendants, is therefore family folklore. How reliable it is is not clear to me. Note that Charlotte must have been at least 46 years old on 11/6/1853, if she was indeed baptized in December 1806.

The following words were published in the "Personal" column of The Observer of 26/2/1916:

There are four generations living of the Hughes family, of Laura. Mr. William Frederick Hughes, the eldest member of the family, was born in Leeds in 1828, and came to South Australia with his parents and three brothers in the barque Diadem, about 500 tons register, in 1840. With his parents he went to Murrundie, on the River Murray, with Mr. Edward Eyre's party, where he had many pioneering experiences in the early days of the province. He afterwards settled at Nairne, where he learnt the trade of a stonemason, under the direction of the late Mr. William Rogers. In 1850 he was married to Miss Mary Stodart, of Nairne. The old couple celebrated the sixty-fifth anniversary of their marriage last June. In 1851 Mr. Hughes settled at Bleakside Farm, Woodside, which he still occupies. He enjoys fairly good health, and latterly has been busy making sandbags for soldiers. Mr. G. L. Hughes, his eldest son, who is 65 years of age, has followed agricultural pursuits practically the whole of his life. For more than a quarter of a century he has been farming in the northern areas on Appila plains, Booleroo, and near Laura, having taken up land at the lastmentioned place 21 years ago. Mr. Frederick T. Hughes, the eldest son of Mr. G. L. Hughes, is also engaged in agricultural pursuits near Laura. The great-grandson of the old colonist, Frederick Campbell Hughes, aged 4 years, is also a great-grandson of the late Mr. James Campbell, who arrived in South Australia in the year 1838, and was for many years farming on land where the suburb of Woodville is now built. Afterwards he occupied a property at Roseworthy.

Here "James Campbell" should be replaced by "William Campbell", and he actually arrived in 1839 rather than 1838.

After their trip to the Murray the Hughes family returned to Adelaide. They must have been back there before W. F. Hughes' 14th birthday (in January 1842), since in later years he recounted working in Adelaide from the age of 13, first as a junior assistant in a livery stable and then (for nearly two years) as a baker's boy. George Robert Hughes apparently worked as a tailor at this time. This information is derived from two old newspaper cuttings quoting W.  F. Hughes and his son A. S. Hughes. The family moved to Nairne some time in the 1840's.

I have not seen any evidence that George Robert Hughes had a tailoring business in Adelaide. Perhaps he was employed by another tailor. The move to Nairne may have signalled the end of his career as a tailor, since in 1849 he successfully tendered for the bi-weekly mail delivery service from Mount Barker to Kanmantoo, and a long list of names published in The Register on 7/3/1850 includes "G. R. Hughes, farmer and mail contractor, Nairne." (This list consisted of people who wished to express their support for Mr John Stephens, editor of The Register, whose position was apparently threatened in some way. See the supplement to the 7/3/1850 edition of The Register.)

Mail contractor
South Australian Register 31/3/1849

In 1850 George Robert Hughes was appointed bailiff of the Local Court at Mount Barker. No doubt this position carried a stipend of some kind. Perhaps with the mail contract and his duties as bailiff he did not end up doing much farming.

South Australian Register 14/6/1850
sworn statement
South Australian Register 26/2/1851

George tendered for the renewal of his mail contract in 1850, and his was the lowest tender submitted for the Mount Barker and Kanmantoo service. Unfortunately for George, James Chambers put in a tender for all the mail contracts, and was accepted since his overall bid was lower than the sum of the individual lowest tenders submitted.

successful tender
South Australian Register 8/2/1850
all tenders
South Australian Register 19/7/1850

The loss of the mail contract presumably meant that farming became George's principal occupation, however temporarily. He clearly soon decided that he needed to take up something new, and in 1854 he commenced practising as an auctioneer. This was to be his principal occupation for the rest of his life.

auctioneering licence
South Australian Register 14/6/1854
Kanmantoo auction
South Australian Register 16/8/1854
Nairne auction Nairne township
South Australian Register 22/6/1854

In January 1854 George made a distinctly unsuccessful attempt to gain election to the District Council of Nairne. Nevertheless, he was clearly a prominent member of the local community.

South Australian Register 6/1/1854
public meeting
South Australian Advertiser 13/8/1858
sheep depasturing
South Australian Register 14/8/1858
Pound auctioneer
South Australian Advertiser 24/8/1860

On 3rd January 1862, by order of the mortgagee, the "store, residence &c." on the corner of Farquharson Street and Adelaide Road, Nairne, "known as being in the occupation of Mr. Geo. R. Hughes", was offered for sale by auction. It must have been passed in, since it was offered for sale again on March 7th and on April 4th, but presumably it was finally sold. In any event, it appears that George was, at some stage, a storekeeper. Perhaps other members of the family actually looked after the store: Joseph Prentice Hughes was to become a storekeeper in North Adelaide, and William Frederick Hughes is said to have been a storekeeper before his marriage (in 1850).

store and residence
South Australian Register 26/12/1861

Presumably George had been unable to meet his mortgage repayments. Whether he continued to live in Nairne after the house was sold I do not know. The next record of him that I have is his death certificate, according to which his usual residence at the time of his death was at Tynte Street North Adelaide.

The death certificate states also that George died at Tynte Street on 29/12/1872, the cause of death being diarrhœa. He was a Commission Agent, aged 73 years.

Charlotte's death certificate states that her usual residence at the time of her death on 29/9/1884 (aged 79) was Archer Street, North Adelaide; her death occurred there, and the cause of death was "Old Age, Apoplexy, Paralysis". I suppose that if one thing doesn't get you then another will! Note that the newspaper death notice (shown above) describes Charlotte as the relict of George Robert Hughes "of Nairne", which perhaps indicates that George had retired from working life before he moved to Tynte Street. But I do not know for certain when he retired. The newspaper notice also tells us that the Archer Street address at which Charlotte died belonged to her daughter, Mrs Morgan. As we shall see below, Mrs Morgan was Charlotte's eldest daughter, Elizabeth Isabella, who was also a widow in 1884. Furthermore, when Elizabeth's husband died in 1880 his address was Tynte Street; so possibly his residence was also the place at which George's final days were spent.

Children of George and Charlotte

My investigations of the descendants of the children of George and Charlotte is a work in progress. Consequently the information presented below will be incomplete, and quite possibly inaccurate in places. Corrections and additional information are always welcome!

— William Frederick —

William Frederick Hughes, eldest son of George and Charlotte, married Mary Stodart. Their family is discussed on a separate page.

— John —

John Prentice Hughes married Elizabeth Jane Hillman, daughter of John Hillman, on 1/8/1855. The Hillmans will be discussed briefly below.

John Dunn, a prominent early resident of Mount Barker, visited the newly founded township of Nairne in 1840. He later wrote as follows:

When I first saw it there were only four persons settled where the town of Nairne how stands. My brother Charles, who was a blacksmith, was one. Hilman, a Cornish carpenter, was another. Mr. Disher—father-in-law of Sir William Milne and Mr. James Johnston, J.P.—was a third. The fourth was a widow, who kept a wayside public-house where the District Hotel now stands.

The widow mentioned here was Mary Ann Stodart, née Middleton, mother of Mary Stodart, who married William Frederick Hughes, and of Thomas Stodart, who married Charlotte Jane Hughes (discussed below). Mary Ann's three children apparently did not qualify as "persons" in John Dunn's view, nor did John Hillman's wife and family!

John Hillman's first wife died at Nairne on 22/5/1855, aged 51. (See Barry Leadbeater's historical South Australian deaths database.) John married again on 1/8/1855, the same day that his daughter Elizabeth married John Prentice Hughes. Both weddings were held at John Hillman's Nairne residence, known as Uplands.

two marriages
South Australian Register 6/8/1855

I presume that John Prentice Hughes started out as an agricultural labourer before getting his own farm. He and Elizabeth lived first at Native Valley (a few miles east of Nairne), then at Tothill's Creek (which is north of Kapunda and east of Saddleworth), and then at Murdock Hill (near Woodside), before taking up land at Willowie in 1881.

At Tothill's Creek John farmed in partnership with Elizabeth's brother Walter and John Benham Stodart, younger brother of the Thomas Stodart and Mary Stodart mentioned above. The venture was apparently not very successful, since John Stodart was left with debts that he could not pay, totalling some £231.

John died on 30/11/1904 from injuries he sustained in a trap accident. His horse swerved suddenly after its tail was caught in one of the reins, and the trap was capsized. Elizabeth continued to live at Willowie, and died there on 8/10/1922.

South Australian Register 11/6/1867
The Advertiser, 28/11/1904
Elizabeth biog
The Chronicle, 28/10/1922
The Advertiser, 5/12/1904

John and Elizabeth had the following children:

I do not know where Walter Stephen Hughes is buried. He lived at Stirling North and died in the Port Augusta Hospital, but it seems that he is not buried in the Stirling North cemetery.

WSH death
The Advertiser, 24/6/1896

Walter Stephen Hughes and Alfred Lawrence Hughes married sisters named Ada Eleanor Prosser and Catherine Sabina Prosser, daughters of James Prosser of Booleroo. Walter and Ada were married on 11/11/1885 at James Prosser's residence.

Ada-Walter marriage
The Advertiser, 24/6/1896

The five children of Walter and Ada were named Prentice James (born 1887), Marinus Morton (1890), Walter Clarence (1892), Olive May (1894) and Reuben Roy (1894).

It seems that some time after Walter's death in 1896, the family moved to Western Australia. Prentice James Hughes died in Western Australia in 1892; the WA online index search shows that he was 14 years old, the son of Walter Stephen Hughes and Ada Elenor Prosser, and born in Stirling North, South Australia. Marinus M. Hughes married Elsie R. R. Gregory in the Beverley district in 1913, and died in the Wellington district in 1956, aged 65. Ruben Roy Hughes died on 29/9/1949, and is buried in the Karrakatta Cemetery. I have not discovered what became of the other two children, Olive May and Walter Clarence.

Walter Stephen's widow, Ada Elinor Hughes, married Charles Henry Willmott in the Midland Junction district in 1903. They had at least one child: a son named Hubert Leslie Willmott, born in the Guildford district in 1905.

Ada Ellen Willmott died on 6/10/1946, and is buried in the Karrakatta Cemetery.

Alfred Lawrence Hughes and Catherine Sabina Prosser were married in 1892; I do not know the precise date. They had children named Lawrence Lancelot (1893), Alfred Norman (1895), Olive Mary (1898), Hugh Travis (1900) and Daisy Catherine Sabina (1904). Catherine did not survive the birth of her last child, and died on 28/5/1904.

Death Notice
The Advertiser, 10/6/1904

In 1905 Alfred Lawrence Hughes married Ethel Blanche Watts Heron, born in 1887, daughter of John Heron and Sarah Ann Sanders. Alfred and Ethel had four children: Ivy Doris Ethel (1905), Alice Maud (1907), Blanche May (1908) and Lawrence Charles Raymond (1918). Ethel Blanche Watts Hughes died in the Booleroo Centre Hospital on 14/8/1936; see the death notices in The Advertiser of 20/8/1936. She is buried in the Wilmington Cemetery.

Lawrence Lancelot Hughes enlisted for military service on 28/12/1915, aged 22 years and 6 months. He served in France in the 50th Battalion A.I.F., and died from wounds on 27/4/1918. He is buried in the Crouy British Cemetery, near Amiens, in France.

page number .
Return Thanks
The Advertiser, 5/6/1918

William Henry Hughes, eldest son of John and Elizabeth, remained unmarried, as did all four of his sisters.

Charlotte death
The Advertiser, 5/11/1940
William death
The Advertiser, 6/8/1942

Gravestone photographs from Willowie Cemetery are freely available online, courtesy of Ian Willmott. In particular, this includes the graves of John Prentice Hughes, Edith Jane Hughes, and six of their seven children.

Alf Grave Eliz Grave
EJ Hughes gravestone
Grave of Elizabeth Jane Hughes
JP Hughes gravestone
Grave of John Prentice Hughes

— George —

George's elder brothers, William Frederick and John Prentice, were both farmers, and so was his youngest brother James. His other brother, Joseph Prentice, was a storekeeper. I do not know what George's primary occupation was. I suspect that, prior to his marriage at least, he had a variety of labouring jobs. Newspaper articles from 1870 concerned with the construction of the overland telegraph from Adelaide to Darwin list a George Hughes among the sawyers and labourers attached to one of the parties. Earlier that year G. R. Hughes was listed among the passengers of the Kohinoor arriving in Adelaide ex Darwin.

The Register 11/4/1870
South Australian Advertiser 30/8/1870

On 9/7/1873 an advertisement headed "Men for the Northern Territory" tells George Hughes and nine others to call at C. J. Coates's Office to sign their agreements, and on 23/7/1873 George Hughes and Joseph Hughes are listed as steerage passengers on the S.S. Gothenburg for Port Darwin.

The Register 9/7/1873
The Register 23/7/1873

Whether or not this George Hughes and this Joseph Hughes were my relatives is unclear to me; I suspect that George, at least, was "my" George. Whoever they were, I am sure that they were thankful that they were not on board the Gothenburg for her voyage from Darwin, destination Adelaide, in February 1875. She was caught in severe storms, struck the Barrier Reef near Holbourne Island on 24/2/1875 and sank the next day, after an attempt to refloat her worsened the damage. Somewhere between 98 and 112 people were drowned, and only 22 survived the wreck. See the wikipedia article for more details.

George Robert Hughes (the second) married Mary Fisher on 28/2/1874; they had the following children:

George Robert Hughes the second died on 11/11/1921, aged 83. His widow, Mary, died on 16/5/1940, aged 86. We deduce that when they were married, in early 1874, he was about 35 years old and she about 20.

GRH2 death
The Advertiser 14/11/1921
Mary Hughes death
The Advertiser 18/5/1940
Marriage Notice
The Advertiser 2/12/1905
Death Notice
The Advertiser 13/5/1911
Marriage Notice
The Advertiser 10/7/1912
Death notice
The Advertiser 23/4/1906
Death Notice
The Advertiser 2/3/1904

George Robert Hughes the third appears to have had an interesting and varied career. In 1903, when Chief Clerk in the West Australian Lands department, he accepted the position of Assistant Secretary for Lands in Transvaal, and moved to South Africa. In 1902, in Perth, he had married Helen Irvine Collier, who was born in Sydney in 1877. One of their grandsons tells me that George Robert III had visited New Zealand at some stage.

George and Helen had the following children: Lillian (b. 1903, d. 1/3/1904), Muriel Gertrude (b. 1905), Effie (b. 1907), Roderick George Robert (b. 21/2/1913), Richie (b. 1914). The last two children were born in Cape Town; I do not know where the others were born, but I presume that all were born in South Africa. George Robert Hughes III died in Cape Town on 24/3/1921; Helen Irvine Hughes died in Cape Town on 22/4/1950.

The Advertiser 30/6/1903
The Advertiser 16/12/1908
The Advertiser 15/11/1904

Harold Gilmore Hughes enlisted in the AIF on 13/9/1915. His service record shows that he was killed by machine gun fire on the morning of 2/4/1917, during the attack on Noreuil.

page number .
The Advertiser 18/9/1916
The Advertiser 2/4/1918
The Advertiser 27/4/1918

— Joseph —

Joseph Prentice Hughes married Mary Ryder on 10/7/1861. She was born in Windsor, Berkshire, in 1839, the daughter of Joseph Ryder and Mary née Hill. The Ryders came to South Australia in 1849 on the Asiatic. The passenger list says that there were four children in the family, and according to their names were Mary, Susanna, Amelia Banfield and Joseph.

The marriage of Joseph P. Hughes and Mary Ryder took place at the residence of Mary's father, at Nairne.

Biographical Index of South
Australians 1836–1885

Joseph and Mary Hughes had the following children:

Soldier's death
The Advertiser, 28/8/1917
Marriage Notice
The Advertiser, 14/3/1908
Marriage Notice
The Advertiser, 23/5/1914
Mary Ryder Death
The Advertiser, 18/4/1892

Joseph's wife Mary died on 16/4/1892. On 4/1/1897 Joseph married Alice Ann Rowe, and this marriage produced the following children: William James, Dorothy Charlotte Augusta and Kathleen Alice. Joseph died on 29/10/1922; his widow, Alice, died on 12/11/1936. The photo below shows the grave of Joseph P. Hughes and both his wives, as well as his daughter Amelia Hannah (who was evidently known as Millie) and son William. Apparently William, like his mother, died in 1936.

Joseph's grave
Grave of Joseph P. Hughes,
Walkerville Cemetery

— Elizabeth —

Elizabeth Isabella Hughes, the first Australian born child of George Robert and Charlotte, married Samuel Lane Morgan. I have not looked up the details of this marriage, but their first child, William George Morgan, was born at Kapunda on 9/9/1872. They also had a daughter named Elizabeth Isabella Morgan, born at Kapunda on 24/7/1874, a son named John Herbert Morgan born at Mt Gambier on 7/12/1875, and a son named Samuel Lane Morgan born at North Adelaide on 20/6/1879. A Samuel Lane Morgan who died 1880 is buried in the Walkerville cemetery, along with Elizabeth Isabel Morgan, another Samuel Lane Morgan, and Benjamin Morgan, brother of the elder Samuel Lane Morgan. The Elizabeth Isabel Morgan here must be the daughter, since Elizabeth Isabella Morgan, 48, widow, daughter of George Robert Hughes, married William Ivey Moyses (42, widower, son of William Moyses) on 26/3/1891 at the Adelaide residence of one Mr Treglohan (who I believe was the father of William Ivey Moyses' first wife).

Isabella death
The Advertiser 14/5/1908
In Memoriam Isabella
The Advertiser 11/5/1909

In the South Australian Advertiser of 25/11/1871 there is a report of a coronial inquest held at Kapunda into the death of a carpenter named Alexander Gray, who perished in a fire that destroyed his dwelling. One of the witnesses was "Samuel Morgan, police-constable stationed at Kapunda". No doubt this was Samuel Lane Morgan. Given that he was a policeman, the fact that the family lived in several different places is no longer surprising.

The Register 2/9/1870
dropped dead
South Australian Advertiser 5/3/1880
The Register 8/3/1880
South Australian Advertiser 8/3/1880

Maureen M Leadbeater's South Australian Police 1838 to 1920 database yields the information that Samuel Morgan was born in Bandon, Ireland, on 17/3/1844, joined the police force on 24/8/1870 (having previously been a labourer), and died on 4/3/1880.

Samuel death
South Australian Advertiser 6/3/1880
Samuel death
The Register 4/12/1874
Samuel funeral
The Register 5/3/1880
Samuel death
The Register 13/10/1879

John Herbert Morgan married Florence Edith Coppen, daughter of Elliott Coppen, at St Bartholomew's, Norwood, on 21/8/1897. William George Morgan married Alma Bruce Duggan, daughter of J. A. Duggan, at St Peter's, Glenelg, on 11/12/1913. Alma Bruce Morgan died on 12/10/1953.

Jack marriage
The Register 14/9/1897
Will marriage
The Advertiser 8/2/1913
Alma death
The Advertiser 14/10/1953

— Charlotte —

The Register, 26/4/1862
The Register, 19/2/1863
The Register, 23/7/1867

Charlotte Jane Hughes married Thomas Stodart, son of Laurence and Mary Stodart, and brother of the Mary Stodart who married William Frederick, Charlotte Jane's brother. Charlotte and Thomas were married on 31/3/1862. They had the following children.

The occurrence of Aitchison as a given name is interesting, and presumably indicates that Thomas Stodart was still in touch with his relatives in Scotland: his father's sister Jane and brother Thomas had married siblings named John Aitchison and Robina Aitchison.

On 24/8/1863 Thomas and Charlotte's home, near Charleston, was destroyed by a fire. Perhaps it was because of this occurrence that they moved to the Kapunda district.

Stodart fire
The Register 31/8/1863
The Register 8/12/1877
Thomas death
South Australian Advertiser 29/8/1884

It appears that Charlotte continued to live in Kapunda for many years after her husband's death, but at some time she moved to Western Australia. Her sons Arthur and Herbert, and daughter Elsie, also moved to Western Australia; whether they all moved at the same time I do not know.

Charlotte died in Perth on 15/9/1925.

Charlotte obit
The Advertiser 13/10/1925
Charlotte death
The West Australian 17/9/1925

Note that the Hughes Family Tree and Schipp Family Tree websites have the wrong date for Charlotte Jane's death, apparently confusing her with her niece, the daughter of John Prentice Hughes named Charlotte Jane.

— Mary —

Mary Ann Hughes married John Bartleet Hopkins on 12/6/1868 at the Tothills Creek residence of Mr Stodart, Mary Ann's brother-in-law. John Bartleet Hopkins was the son of Edwin Carter Hopkins and Hannah Bartleet, who were married on 25/8/1840 at Saint Bartholomew, Tardebigge, Worcester.

Edwin Carter Hopkins was baptized on 4/6/1818 at Coventry Holy Trinity, and was the son of John Hopkins and his wife Jacintha (née Carter). Hannah Bartleet was baptized on 11/12/1818 at Redditch; her parents were named William and Ann.

John Bartleet Hopkins was born on 13/9/1841 in Henley-in-Arden, Warwickshire, and baptized on 17/9/1841. He had two brothers who were also baptized in Henley: William Edwin Hopkins, baptized on 12/9/1843, and Thomas James Carter Hopkins baptized on 14/4/1846. The death of Thomas James Carter Hopkins was registered in the last quarter of 1847, in the Croydon district, and he was buried on 5/11/1847 in Croydon.

Edwin Carter Hopkins emigrated in 1848, unaccompanied by any family members, and arrived in South Australia on 29/11/1849 in the ship Bolton. (Although FamilyHistorySA's passenger list database has his name as Edward, the original passenger list published in the South Australian Register on 1/12/1849 has "Edw. Hopkins".) Probably Edwin's wife was the Hannah Hopkins whose death was registered in the Stratford district in the third quarter of 1848. His sons must have been left in the care of relatives, but unfortunately I have not yet managed to find them in 1851 census records. They joined their father in South Australia in 1857.

South Australian Register 2/3/1850
support for Mr Hawker
South Australian Register 16/1/1857

William Clark, labourer, was charged with a felonious assault on Edwin Carter Hopkins, clerk, living at "Doran's Hotel" and stealing two sovereigns and some silver, about a week since.

E. C. Hopkins deposed that he was coming from Hindley-street about 11 o'clock p.m., from the "Royal Oak" to Doran's was attacked by three men; the tallest got hold of his throat, another grasped his heels, the third took the money out of his left hand trousers pocket; had two sovereigns and some silver stolen. Also lost his hat and shoes. His wrist was cut with some sharp instrument. Could not swear to the prisoner, but had no doubt he was the man. The hat produced belonged to witness. First saw the prisoner in the dock, but if he had met him in the street thought he should have recognised him. The hat was worth 6s. 6d., and the shoes 14s.

South Australian Weekly Chronicle 28/1/1860

South Australian birth records show that by 1853 Edwin Carter Hopkins had married again. His second wife's name was Elizabeth Eleanor Fitzgerald, and they had six children: Jacintha (1853), Mary Anne (1856), Henry Edwin (1859), Edward Carter (1862), James Carter (1864) and Elizabeth (1866). I have not been able to find the marriage of Edwin Carter Hopkins and Elizabeth Fitzgerald in any South Australian marriage database, but according to a pedigree resource file submission it took place at Clare on 12/4/1852.

Edwin Carter Hopkins followed several different occupations at various times in his life. The 1841 census of England has him as a Grocer, living in Wootton Wawen, in Warwickshire. From 1861 to 1877 he was a schoolmaster, at Riverton for two years, then at Rhynie for four years, then at Truro for 11 years. The number of years he spent teaching, and his teaching service record, indicate that he was successful enough in this role. Then he took up farming, at Blyth, but by 1882 he was insolvent, and his farm was sold.

South Australian Weekly Chronicle 24/5/1862
South Australian Weekly Chronicle 24/5/1862
South Australian Register 18/4/1882
S. A. Chronicle and Weekly Mail 7/7/1877
South Australian Weekly Chronicle 22/4/1882
South Australian Register 16/8/1882

I do not quite understand how one can be insolvent with assets exceeding liabilities by £419 2s. 2d., but evidently it was possible.

South Australian Weekly Chronicle 24/5/1862

At least while he was living at Rhynie, E. C. Hopkins also practised medicine. A "My Heritage – Cartwright Web Site" page calls him "Dr Edwin Carter Hopkins" and says that he was a fully qualified medical practitioner in England, but lost his papers on the voyage to Australia. I suppose this must be family folklore; I do not know whether it would be possible to check on his qualifications.

Edwin Carter Hopkins died on 9/8/1887 at Clinton on Yorke Peninsula. His wife died on 18/8/1910 at the Semaphore home of her daughter Mary Anne, the wife of Thomas Balfour Cooper.

ECH death
South Australian Register 16/8/1887
EEH death
Chronicle 10/9/1910

John Bartleet Hopkins and William Edwin Hopkins, the two England-born sons of E. C. Hopkins, came to South Australia in the ship Sumner, which arrived on 21/8/1857. A passenger list has their ages as 14 and 13, but in fact John was nearly 16. The South Australian Register's version of the passenger list does not mention William, but the official list does: see the passenger list search provided by State Records of South Australia.

In 1861 John B. Hopkins and a partner named Lewis undertook a trading excursion, and for the purpose had purchased goods from a man named Buck. On balancing the accounts it was found that Buck was owed £20 14s. 3d., and he persuaded John B. Hopkins to sign a bill of exchange, drawn on John B. Hopkins alone, for the amount due. He later sued John B. Hopkins for the money. Presumably Lewis had either reneged on his moral responsibility to help pay the debt, or was no longer contactable.

When the matter came to court, in December 1862, the defendant argued that his agreement to pay was not legally enforceable, since he was under the age of 21 when he was induced to sign the bill of exchange. Apparently this point had legal merit, and so the date of John B. Hopkins' birth became the central issue of the case. E. C. Hopkins, master of the government school at Rhynie, swore that the defendant was his eldest son, born on 13th September 1841 at Henley-in-Arden. W. E. Hopkins testified that the defendant was his brother, and produced a memorandum book into which he had copied—from the family bible, which had been left in England—the birth dates of all members of the family. The court, in its wisdom, refused to allow the memorandum book as evidence, and decided that the defendant's plea of infancy had not been proved. Presumably they were not explicitly calling the schoolmaster a liar, but suggesting that his memory may have not been accurate. Whatever way, their judgment was in favour of the plaintiff, with costs.

South Australian Register 23/12/1862

Since family historians do not have the same high standards as courts of law, I am prepared to accept that John Bartleet Hopkins was indeed born at Henley-in-Arden on 13/9/1841.

It is interesting to note that John Bartleet Hopkins himself knew that he was born in September 1841, but was unsure of the day. Perhaps, in those times, it was not uncommon for people to be ignorant of their own birth-dates.

William Edwin Hopkins married Hannah Linthorne in 1871. Hannah was a widow whose maiden surname was Sumner; she was born on 4/3/1835 in Nottingham, and came to South Australia in 1848 with her parents and two sisters, passengers in the Harpley. These passengers, though English, had been living in Calais, where there was a largely English owned and operated lacemaking industry. In early 1848, with France in political and industrial turmoil, the English owners closed their Calais lacemaking factories, leaving the workers in a predicament. With small chance of finding employment in England, many applied for assisted passage to Australia.

South Australian Register 6/9/1848

Hannah Sumner married Benjamin Baker Linthorne on 20/11/1854 in Penwortham, South Australia. Benjamin was born on 5/4/1824 on the Isle of Wight, and was the son of Thomas Linthorne and Maria Buckler, who were married in 1821 in Warminster, Wiltshire. He was baptized on 21/6/1825 in Warminster, as was his twin sister Elizabeth Bayly Linthorne. In the Trowbridge Museum there is a wooden plaque commemorating Lieut. Thomas Linthorne, R.N., who died on 30/10/1833, aged 48, and his daughters Elizabeth Bayly Linthorne (died 29/12/1828, aged 4) and Maria Buckler Linthorne (died 5/10/1834 aged 9). On the reverse of the plaque, written in pencil, are the words "fixed in a hurry, October 4th 1834".

I do not know when or how Benjamin Baker Linthorne came to South Australia. Birth registration records show that Benjamin Baker Linthorne and Hannah Sumner had two children: George Buckler Linthorne, born in 1860, and Ellin Peach Linthorne, born in 1862. I believe that Ellin Peach was the maiden name of B. B. Linthorne's maternal grandmother.

Benjamin Baker Linthorne died on 6/9/1864 in the Hummock Range, about 40 km north of Port Wakefield.

South Australian Register 26/9/1864

According to the South Australian birth index, William Edwin Hopkins and Hannah Sumner had the following children: William Edwin (1872), John James (1875) and Albert (1876).

William Edwin Hopkins lived at Redhill in (the mid-north of South Australia), where he was the local butcher. He evidently prospered, and became a prominent member of the Redhill community. His name is mentioned many times in the reports from Redhill in the Country News columns of South Australian newspapers of the time. For example, when the citizens of Redhill decided that the town needed an institute, W. E. Hopkins was a member of the Building Committee; he was a member of the Loyal Broughton Lodge of Oddfellows, and was Chairman on the occasion of their anniversary dinner in April 1879, and handicapper and starter for the sporting events at their second annual picnic in April 1877; he was also the starter and a steward at the Redhill Races in November 1878.

Butcher wanted
The Northern Argus 17/9/1875
slaughtering licence
The Northern Argus 3/3/1876
S. A. Chronicle and Weekly Mail 19/4/1879
The South Australian Register 7/5/1877
Northern Argus 30/4/1878

In 1879 W. E. Hopkins opened a pub in Redhill. It is still there, and is called the Eureka Hotel; you can see it in Google street view.

hotel planned
South Australian Register 26/2/1879
licence approved
South Australia Register 5/9/1879
butcher publican
The South Australian Register 23/4/1879
open for business
South Australian Advertiser 23/9/1879
Eureka Hotel
Eureka Hotel c.1884
(State Library of South Australia: image B 70085/113)

Hannah, wife of William Edwin Hopkins, died at Redhill on 1/5/1889, aged 54; she was buried on 3/5/1889 in the Redhill Cemetery. William sold his business in January 1892, although he apparently remained living at Redhill, since he was elected a councillor for Redhill in July 1892. He died on 20/1/1897 at the Alberton residence of his half sister Mary Anne, and was buried at Redhill on the following day.

Mrs Hopkins obit
Northern Argus 7/5/1889
Hannah death
The Advertiser 18/5/1889
South Australian Register 6/7/1892
for sale
South Australian Chronicle 2/1/1892
W. E. Hopkins death
South Australia Register 21/1/1897

This section, which was supposed to be about Mary Ann Hughes and her husband, has turned out to be more about her in-laws. The remainder of the section is a little more directly relevant to the correct topic.

South Australian birth records show that John B. Hopkins and Mary Ann Hughes had the following children, all of whom were born in Adelaide or North Adelaide:

Twice the father's name was recorded as John Bartleet Hopkins, four times as John Bartlett Hopkins.

AE Hopkins death
South Australian Advertiser 19/6/1877
EG Hopkins death
South Australian Advertiser 17/12/1878

John B. Hopkins was a grocer. For many years—precisely how many I do not know—he worked for Ellis Edwards, who had a shop at 6 Hindley Street. In 1883 Ellis Edwards sold the shop to J. B. Hopkins and H. B. Funnell, both of whom were previously his employees.

Cook wanted for Redhill
South Australian Advertiser 4/8/1880
cook and general work
South Australian Register 19/11/1880
Transferral of business
South Australian Register 21/3/1883

Clearly the youngest son of John B. and Mary Ann Hopkins was named in honour of Ellis Edwards.

In the 1870's J. B. Hopkins was heavily involved with the running of the Morphett Street Primitive Methodist Sunday School. In April 1880, when "domestic affliction" compelled him to resign his position as superintendent of the Sunday School, he was presented with a handsome writing desk. Perhaps the domestic affliction was to do with his wife's health: Mary Ann died on 9/10/1880, after a long and painful illness.

sacred songs
South Australian Register 4/11/1873
cook and general work
S.A. Cronicle and Weekly Mail 13/9/1879
Mary Ann Death
The Register 11/10/1880
Sunday School Picnic
South Australian Register 31/3/1877
South Australian Register 13/4/1880

Two of the six children of John B. and Mary Ann Hopkins died in infancy. The remaining four all all survived to adulthood, married, and had children.

William Bartlett Hopkins married Marion Elaine Black in Sydney in 1902. I know of two children: Mervyn E. B. Hopkins, born in 1903, and William E. K. Hopkins, born in 1904. Both births were registered in the Parramatta district. William Bartlett Hopkins died at his home in Parkes N.S.W. on 11/4/1921.

WB Hopkins death
The Sydney Morning Herald 14/4/1921

Ada Bartlett Hopkins married Isaac Stewart Donnell on 28/12/1892, at the Morphett Street Primitive Methodist Church, Adelaide. They had children named Vira Fanny (1893), William Stewart (1895), Arthur Ross (1897), Dulcie Mary (1902), Amelia Ada (1906), Cliffe Bartlett (1909) and Leslie John (1911). Ada Bartlett Donnell died at her home on Torrens Road, Croydon, on 16/1/1944.

South Australian Register 17/1/1893
Ada Donnell death
The Chronicle 20/1/1944

Mary Isabel Hopkins married Charles Gaston in 1902. Their son, Clarance Charles Gaston, was born in 1905. Mary Isabel Gaston died on 30/7/1947.

Mary Gaston death
The Chronicle 7/8/1947

John Ellis Edward Hopkins married Mabel Beatrice Howe in 1903. They had children named Ilean Rosa (1903), William Albert (1905), Gladys Vira (1907), Elva Marjorie (1913) and Robert Stanley (1922). John Ellis Edward Hopkins died at Encounter Bay in 1961.

After Mary Ann's death in 1880, John B. Hopkins married again. His second wife's name was Amelia Sanders; they were married on 23/2/1883 at the Primitive Methodist Manse in Franklin Street, and they had children named Lilian Gertrude (1884), John Stanley Leaver (1886), Dorothy May (1888), Harrold (1890), Thomas Lionel (1891), Edwin Carter (1894) and Frank Leonard (1897).

Mary Gaston death
South Australian Register 28/2/1883

I do not know for how long John B. Hopkins' partnership with H. B. Funnell lasted, but in 1888 John B. Hopkins had a shop of his own at 33 King William Street. In his newspaper advertisements John B. Hopkins distances himself from one Joseph Melville, but who this person was and what he did is unknown to me.

Butter, eggs and the well-known Crown Tea
South Australian Register 19/5/1888
Melville-free grocer
South Australian Register 33/5/1888

It seems to me that "has nothing to do with the late firm" cannot possibly have been the right words, but the general idea is clear enough.

In 1888 J. B. Hopkins also advertised for a general servant and nursemaid, and a delivery boy. However, it is clear that his business did not attract enough customers, and in November 1890 he placed an advertisement in the "Situations Wanted" column of the Advertiser.

family servant
South Australian Advertiser 7/5/1888
vacancy for school-leaver
South Australian Advertiser 31/5/1888
South Australian Advertiser 2/6/1888
debt recovery
South Australian Register 13/12/1888
grocer wants job
The Advertiser 19/11/1890
delivery man
South Australian Advertiser 18/8/1888
endless-rope lift
S. A. Weekly Chronicle 22/12/1888

John B. Hopkins found employment as a Grocer's Traveller, and worked for many years for Messrs Charlick Bros. In 1901 he joined Town and Country Cash Stores in the same capacity. He later became an agent for the Citizens Life Assurance Company. This was probably not the best decision he ever made in his life, and in early 1907 the company successfully sued him for money he had received on behalf of the company and money due under the articles of agreement (dated 10/4/1905), a total of about £19.

By 1904, J. B. Hopkins had joined the Christadelphians, and in 1904 and 1905 he gave several lectures at the Eastwood and Parkside Institute, on topics including "Baptism contrasted with Rhantism", "The Truth Concerning Hell" and "Where are the dead? The Scriptural answer to this question."

grocer's traveller
The Advertiser 15/3/1901
apostolic gospel
The Advertiser 15/10/1904
life assurance agent
The Advertiser 28/3/1907

John B. Hopkins died at Eastwood on 2/5/1910, aged 68. His wife Amelia died at North Richmond on 6/8/1942, aged 81.

J. B. Hopkins death
The Advertiser 5/5/1910
Amelia death
The Advertiser 7/8/1942

— James —

My information about James was provided by Tom Hughes, a descendant, who also provided the photos of George Robert Hughes and Charlotte Hughes shown at the top of this page.

According to their marriage certificate, James Henry Hughes married Christina Mac Lean, daughter of Hugh Mac Lean, at the residence of Mr Mac Beath, Point Macleay S.A., on 7/11/1877. James' age was given as 25 and Christina's as 19.

The marriage certificate spelling of Christina's surname—"Mac Lean" rather than "McLean"—seems to be an aberration. Similarly, the placename is usually spelt "McLeay" rather than "Macleay". I do not know about "Mac Beath"!

James was born at Nairne on 11/6/1853 and Christina at Strathalbyn on 17/4/1859. By my reckoning this means they were 24 and 18 on their marriage day rather than 25 and 19. But one can say that he was in his 25th year and she in her 19th.

JHH-CMcM certificate
Christina Hughes (née McLean)
James and Christina

James and Christina had the following children:

James and Christina with their family
back: Henry, May, George (May's husband),
front: Alan, Mary, Jeff, Alice

There are several McLeans buried in the Strathalbyn cemetery, notably some Hugh McLeans. In fact there are four separate on-line Strathalbyn cemetery records for Hugh McLeans: allegedly, one died on 31/5/1876, aged 63, another died on 1/6/1876, aged 63, a third died on 7/6/1921, aged 85, and a fourth died on 26/10/1929, aged 63. If your name is Hugh McLean, beware age 63! Surely the first two records correspond to the same person: pehaps he died on 31/5/1876 and was buried on 1/6/1876. The odd thing is that the first record gives the plot/grave/niche number as 83, the second gives 82. The two 1920's burials also give the plot/grave/niche number as 82. It looks like a family plot with three generations of Hugh McLeans, the first born in 1813, the second in 1836, the third in 1866.

Plot number 82 also contains Margaret Maclean, who died on 7/4/1891, aged 48. Plot 84 contains Donald Mclean, who died on 10/10/1856, aged 84, and his wife Christina McLean, who died on 9/4/1869, aged 78.

According to a record submitted to the LDS Ancestral file (see, the parents of Christina McLean were Ewan McLean and Christina Black, who were married in South Australia on 5/5/1849. According to this source, Ewan was born in Argyllshire in about 1815, died at Meningie on 30/5/1876, and was buried at Strathalbyn. His parents were Donald McLean and Christina McPhee. Christina Black was born in Scotland in about 1831 and died at Meningie.

The Advertiser, Tuesday 26/2/1907

According to her obituary in the Advertiser, Christina Black was 74 when she died in February 1907, and came to South Australia on the Duke of Bedford when she was 10. But the Duke of Bedford arrived at Port Adelaide on 5/12/1848, and Christiana Black's name appears in the list of passengers published in the South Australian Register's "Shipping Intelligence" column of 6/12/1848. I think that, in the obituary, 10 must be a misprint for 16.

James Henry Hughes died on 4/11/1920 and was buried on 5/11/1920 at Meningie (grave no. 1332). Christina Hughes (née McLean) died at Strathalbyn on 27/5/1944, and was buried on 29/5/1944 at Meningie (grave no. 1331). There is also (a transcription of) a Meningie burial record for a Christina McLean, allegedly buried on 1/2/1907, but according to the obituary she actually died a couple of weeks later than that.

Donald and Christina McLean and family came to South Australia in 1837 on the Navarino. The passenger list gives 11 children: Rachel, Margaret, Jane, Elizabeth, Hugh (little), Allen, Ewan, John, Mary, Archibald and Ann. Apparently Ewan was also known as Hugh, hence the need for little Hugh to be so specified. Thus the first two of the Hugh McLeans buried at Strathalbyn were actually brothers!

Donald McLean, together with his sons Allan and John (who were the ones to actually do the work), produced the first crop of wheat to be grown in South Australia. It was harvested in 1838.

Tom Hughes provided the following information.

James Henry and Christina Hughes

James was born at Nairne, South Australia on June 11th 1853, his wife Christina (McLean) on April 17th 1859. They were married at Narrung in 1877. Their daughter May was born in 1878, Henry in 1880 and Jeff in 1882, they then moved to Meningie. Their other children were most probably born at Meningie. After some time at Meningie the family moved to Albert Hill to a farm, where they had 400-500 acres plus a lease of scrubland. They supposedly had dairy cattle, as well as sheep and James also bred and traded horses for the Indian and Australian armies.


James worked on Tatiara Station, which adjoined the Albert Hill farm. He used to drive a bullock wagon to cart the wool to Tailem Bend, the nearest rail head. At some stage during World War I he had an accident – when going down a hill in a buggy or cart the horse bolted and he was kicked in the forehead. His granddaughter Glad Gardner (daughter of James' son Henry) can remember the scar.

Christina moved to Meningie in 1918 after the death of her daughter Ally (Alice), James stayed on at Albert Hill. Their son Henry and his wife Lizzie were running the general store at Meningie. In 1920 they moved to Albert Hill and took over the running of the farm. The youngest son Bill and his wife Hilda then took over the shop at Meningie.

Christina used to be the Meningie mid-wife in the days when the nearest doctor was at Tailem Bend over 50km away and the doctor's transport was horse and buggy. By the 1920's there was a small hospital in Meningie.

James was still working at Tatiara Station. He died on 4th November 1920. The day before he'd taken sheep to Tailem Bend by horseback. He arrived back at Albert Hill very tired, had tea and went to bed. He asked to be called next morning early as he wanted to go to the Meningie Show, His daughter-in-law Lizzie went in with his cup of tea in the morning but he had died during the night.

Christina had a house in the street behind the shop at Meningie. In the mid/late 1920's, Henry and Lizzie returned and took after the shop again. Henry and Lizzie and their 3 daughters, Doris, Glad and Marge, lived in the back part of the house and Christina lived in the front part.

Through the 1930's and 40's she would spend time with May and George Shillitoe at Ashfield, then to Bill and Hilda at Strathalbyn (later Murray Bridge) She would stay a few months then on to Adelaide to stay with Mary and Will Coad, then back to Meningie. Her son Bill always provided the transport so Christina never needed a car. Bill's son Jim often went with his father and as a result learnt to drive before he was 10, With the aid of 2 cushions he was allowed to drive along the straight road between Tailem Bend and Meningie.

As a boy Bill's older son, Ron, would look forward to Christina's arrival as she was a good cook, while his mother, Hilda, hated cooking. During her stay Christina would take over the kitchen. Ron remembers her dark auburn hair. She used to like playing euchre (a card game), and tell her grandchildren stories. Jim remembers that she would often slip him some extra pocket money.

Christina died May 27th 1944 at the age of 85. Two of her children died before her—Jeff died February 28th 1910, at 28, Ally (Alice) February 3rd 1918 at 25.

Isabella May Hughes, known by her second name, married George Shillitoe on 3/8/1896. They had children named Christina Susan, George Henry, and Albert. May died on 4/2/1966, George died in April 1952.

James Henry Ewin Hughes, known as Henry, married Elizabeth Sabey on 4/8/1903. They had children named Doris Elizabeth Prentice, Gladys May, and Reta Marjory. Henry died on 17/7/1964, Elizabeth died on 13/6/1947.

The Advertiser 22/8/1903

George Robert Jeffrey Hughes, known as Jeff, married Olive Margaret Hiscock on 14/6/1909. They had a son named Jeffrey John Hughes. Jeff died on 28/2/1910; a death notice was placed in the Advertiser on 31/3/1910, and the same issue carried the notice of the birth of his son. Olive married Frederick George Hurford in 1919 and died in 1957.

death notice birth notice
The Advertiser 31/3/1910

Mary Stoddart Hughes married Arthur William Coad on 6/7/1903. They had children named May Olive, Wallace Guy, and Allan Arthur. Mary died on 15/7/1967.

The Advertiser 31/7/1903

Allan Arthur Hughes married Louise Victoria Chapman on 22/11/1911. They had children named Daphne Christina and Alice Jean. Allan died on 15/9/1979.

The Advertiser 28/12/1911

Alice Charlotte Hughes did not marry, and died on 3/2/1918.

The Advertiser 4/2/1918

Otto William Hughes, known as Bill, married Hilda Irene Curnow on 4/1/1897. They had children named Ronald Laurence and James Curnow Hughes. Bill died on 27/1/1970, Hilda died on 11/7/1986.

An article in The News of 16/12/1950 reports the graduation of 1st lieutenant James Curnow Hughes from RMC Duntroon, and mentions that his elder brother had recently been appointed Commanding Officer of No. 2 Battalion Royal Australian Regiment. (Although the article says that James Curnow Hughes' father was Mr J. W. Hughes, checking the online database at GenealogySA shows that Ronald Lurence Hughes' parents were Otto William Hughes and Hilda Irene Curnow.) It may be that Ronald Laurence Hughes and James Curnow Hughes are the only brothers to ever both attain the rank of Major General in the Australian Army.

There is also a wikipedia article on Ronald Lawrence Hughes. I (obstinately) contend that his second name should have u rather than a w.

John Hillman

The following words are quoted from a message in Rootsweb's Cornish-L archives, dated 12 February 1999:

John Hillman born c. 1802 at a place called Bovey Tracey, information to hand on this man is sketchy, I know he had a sister Jane and a brother Leonard, and that his father's name was John. He married Johannah Palmer on 20 October 1827 at the Cornish Parish Church, Plymouth. He emigrated to South Australia aboard the "Katherine Stewart Forbes" in 1837, bringing with him, his wife and 5 children (all who are listed in the family bible as being born in Penzance), his sister and his brother.

His application for passage lists him as living at Launceston, as do those of his siblings. All three (plus John's wife and children) travelled on the same ship.

Jane Hillman (his sister) was 21 and a seamstress of Launceston when she left to come here. Leonard was 24 and a farm hand/labourer of Launceston.

I believe that his wife Johanna was sometimes known as Jane.

I guess that the family bible was the source for much of this, but when the information was written into the family bible is unclear. My guess is that it was not written by John Hillman himself but by one of his grandchildren. The statement that John and Johannah were married in "the Cornish Parish Church, Plymouth" seems particularly strange. Furthermore, there is credible evidence that the children were not all born in Penzance.

I obtained from an image of the marriage record in question. John Hillman and Jane Palmer were married on 20 October 1827 in the parish church of Plymouth St Andrew. The marriage was performed by John Hatchard, vicar of Plymouth St Andrew.

The passenger list of the Katherine Stewart Forbes (compiled by Di Cummings) says that four Hillman children accompanied their parents to South Australia in 1837, and names them as James, Thomas/Richard, Elizabeth and John. The elder John's siblings, Leonard and Jane Hillman, are named in the passenger list of the Recovery, which arrived in 1839.

Barry Leadbeater's database of early South Australian marriages shows that Jane Hillman married Henry Goldfinch on 4/12/1845. Jane Goldfinch died in February 1895; a death notice published in the South Australian Register says that she was 79 years old, and arrived in 1839 in the ship Recover. Her brother Leonard died on 2/4/1860, aged 48.

Leonard death
South Australian Register, 25/4/1860
Jane Goldfinch death
South Australian Register, 22/2/1895
Jane Goldfinch death
The Register, 27/7/1911

I have not been able to find any mention of John Hillman's death in digitized South Australian newspapers, but Mount Barker District Council burial records show that he died on 12/2/1875, aged 73, and was buried on 15/2/1875 in the Nairne Cemetery.

According to their immigration applications, Leonard and Jane Hillman were both from Launceston. The Cornwall Online Parish Clerks baptism database includes following four Hillman baptisms at Launceston St Mary Magdalene, surely all members of the same family, and surely the family we are interested in:

The above baptism dates for John and Leonard are both compatible with the recorded ages of the John and Leonard Hillman who died in South Australia. Jane baptized in December 1814 would have been (at least) 80, rather than 79, in February 1895, but perhaps she herself did not know her correct age. Alternatively, since she was some 10 years older than her husband, she may have been not quite truthful about her age.

Note that Jane's baptism record says that her father, Thomas, was a carpenter. We know, from Elizabeth Jane Hughes' biography and from John Dunn's memoirs (see the John Prentice Hughes section above), that John Hillman was a carpenter. So I believe that he was indeed the son of Thomas Hillman baptized in Launceston in 1803, and learned his trade from his father. I do not know the basis for the claim that John Hillman was born in Bovey Tracey and that his father's name was John, but it certainly looks as though some error has been made.

According to her biography, Elizabeth Jane Hughes was born in Penzance on 22/8/1833. Presumably this information was supplied by one of her children, and is presumably correct. But a person's birthplace and place of baptism do not have to be the same, and Elizabeth Jane Hilman, daughter of John and Jane, was baptized on 19/3/1834 in Launceston St Mary Magdalene. Note that the baptism record says that John, her father, was a carpenter. Note also that their residence, Windmill Lane in Launceston, was the same as that of Thomas and Elizabeth Hillman when their daughter Jane was baptized, twenty years earlier.

Elizabeth Jane Hillman's elder brother James was probably the James Hillman, son of John and Jane, who was baptized in Plymouth St Andrew on 10/8/1828. An image of the relevant page of the baptism register can be obtained from; significantly, it says that John Hillman, the child's father, was a carpenter. His residence was in Plymouth at this time.

Barry Leadbeater's historical S.A. marriages and deaths databases include the marriage of a James Hillman and Ellen Haines on 25/12/1851 and the death of James Hillman at Nairne on 29/11/1855, aged 27. Ellen married again on 16/8/1857; her second husband was Edis Smith.

Haines marriages
South Australian Register 21/8/1857

According to South Australian records—see Barry Leadbeater's historical S.A. births—John Hillman and Jane Palmer had two sons born in South Australia: Walter Hillman was born on 8/2/1842 and William Hillman was born on 9/2/1846, both births being registered at Mount Barker. Since these two birth records say that the mother's maiden name was Jane Palmer, in agreement with the marriage record from Plymouth St Andrew, and since also the South Australian record of her death on 22/5/1855, and the baptism records for James and Elizabeth Jane, say that her name was Jane, there can be no doubt that officially her name was indeed Jane. It is certainly quite possible that everyone called her Johannah, but if so then this was no more than a nickname.

John and Jane had another son born in South Australia: Leonard Hillman was born at Holdfast Bay on 19/10/1837, two days after the Katherine Stewart Forbes arrived there. This information was apparently handed down through the Hillman family, and since compulsory registration of births in South Australia did not commence until 1842, it seems likely that no other record of the birth exists.

John and Jane had at least two other sons born in England: Richard Thomas Hillman was born in 1830 or  1831, and John Hillman was born at Plymouth on 31/3/1836. Presumably there are baptism records, but I have not found them. Richard Thomas was evidently known by his second name, because in South Australian records he is sometimes referred to simply as Thomas Hillman. According to an online biography of John Hillman, provided a Hillman descendant, John and Jane also had a son named John George Lilga Hillman, but I have not found any records for this person.

Richard Thomas Hillman married Sarah Ann Butcher at Uplands, Nairne, on 21/4/1856. Coincidentally, Richard Thomas Hillman was a butcher! Thomas and Sarah had children named Ann Jane (1857), John Butcher (1859–1859), Helena (1860), Martha (1862) and Gilbert (1864). Thomas Hillman died at Kanmantoo on 22/5/1866, and was buried at Nairne on 24/5/1866. His widow Sarah Ann died at Prospect on 31/8/1908.

South Australian Weekly Chronicle 10/2/1866
RT Hillman death
South Australian Weekly Chronicle 28/4/1866
RT Hillman obit
South Australian Weekly Chronicle 5/5/1866
SA Hillman death
The Register 3/9/1908

John Hillman (born 1836) married Sarah Prosser, daughter of James Prosser, in 1865. James Prosser had married Mary Jones in the Abergavenny district in Wales in the first quarter of 1843, and they came to Australia in the ship Nile in 1855. According to a passenger list, James was 37, Mary was 35, and they had children Sarah (10), Mary (8) and William (2). More children were born in South Australia; in particular, Ada Eleanor Prosser (born 1863) and Catherine Sabina Prosser (born 1868) were younger sisters of John Hillman's wife Sarah. Ada and Catherine married John Hillman's nephews Walter Stephen Hughes and Alfred Lawrence Hughes.

John Hillman and Sarah Prosser had children named Richard Jasper (1867), Mary Elizabeth (1869), Laura Alberta (1871) and William John Herbert (1874). John Hillman's biography mentions another son, R. H. Hillman, apparently the Redge Hartley Hillman who died on 16/3/1968, aged 71, and was cremated at Centennial Park Cemetery. I find it hard to believe that he was the biological son of John and Sarah, who would have been 64 and 53 when Redge was born, twenty-two years after the birth of their previous child. Since also there is no record of the birth of a Redge or Reginald Hillman in 1896 or 1897, my best guess is that he was an adopted child.

John Hillman died at Wirrabara on 17/10/1917, aged 81, and was buried on 17/10/1917 at Wirrabara. Sarah Hillman died at Wirrabara in January 1927, aged 83, and was buried on 16/1/1927 at Wirrabara.

J Hillman death
The Advertiser 5/11/1917
J Hillman obit
Chronicle 3/11/1917

Leonard Hillman (born 1837) married Susan Cock at Nairne in 1866; they had children named Charlotte Victoria (1867), Elizabeth Jane (1867), Selina (1868), Alice Maude (1875), William Leonard (1877) and Walter John (1879). Leonard died on 1/10/1911 at age 75, and is buried at Callington. Susan died on 17/10/1934, aged 97, and is also buried at Callington.

Walter Hillman (born 1882) married Jemima Fry in 1882; the marriage was registered in the Port Gawler district. Jemima was a widow whose maiden surname was Nottle. She had married Henry Singleton Fry in 1879, and had a son named John Henry Fry, born in 1879. Henry Singleton Fry died in 1880.

Henry Fry's death
Kapunda Herald 16/4/1880

Walter and Jemima had children named Mary Ann Hillman (1883), Wilford Thomas Hillman (1885), Frederick Walter George Hillman (1887), Elsie May Victoria Hillman (1889), Samuel Leonard Hillman (1891–1911), Albert Horrace Hillman (1895), and Eliza Ann Hillman (1897). Walter died at Gawler on 30/6/1923, buried on 2/7/1923. Jemima died in 1924.

Samuel Leonard Hillman's death
The Register 3/6/1911
Walter's death
Chronicle 7/7/1923

William Hillman, youngest son of John and Elizabeth Jane, married Anne Ester Salmon in 1868. The South Australian birth index lists a John Gilbert Hillman, son of William Hillman and Annie Salmon, born at Kapunda in 1869, but it looks as though he should be identified with the Thomas Gilbert Hillman who married Adelaide Augusta Clutterham on 19/12/1897, and was buried in 1856 in the Cheltenham Cemetery. His age at death shows that this Thomas was probably born in 1869, and a newspaper marriage notice indicates that he was the eldest son of Mr Hillman of Wilmington. A small problem with this theory is that it asserts not only that the birth index has his first name wrong, but also that the newspaper marriage notice has his father's first name wrong. Nevertheless, I do not believe that there were two Mr Hillmans of Wilmington whose eldest sons both had middle name Gilbert and were both born in 1869.

The Advertiser 22/3/1898

William and Annie also had children named Walter Leonard (1870), John Nicholas (1871), Annie Barbara (1873), William Edwin (1878), Maria Janet (1880), Millicent Esther (1884) and Lilly Jane (1887). The fact that the third son was named John lends some support to the theory that the first son was named Thomas rather than John.

Annie's death
The Advertiser 28/9/1899
William's death
Chronicle 15/10/1921

Annie Esther Hillman died on 7/9/1899, aged 49, and was buried on 9/9/1899 at Wilmington. William Hillman died at Wilmington on 5/10/1921, aged 76, and was buried on 6/10/1921 at Wilmington.

Land dispute
The Advertiser, 14/6/1918
Excerpts from Albert McBride's evidence
The Advertiser, 3/11/1917

The McBrides

According to the book South Australian Marriage Registrations 1842 to 1916, Robert Martin McBride (who married Laura Stodart) was the son of Robert James Martin McBride, while William James McBride (who married Florence Stodart) was the son of James Martin McBride. However, the marriage of William and Florence is also listed in the LDS Pedigree Resource File, with William's father named as Robert James Martin McBride. I am confident that this is not an example of confusion of two similarly named people, but rather that Robert James Martin McBride was commonly known as James Martin McBride. The IGI includes a record of the birth of William James McBride, son of Robert James Martin McBride and Elizabeth Dunn, on 6/12/1856 at Hillside, Burra, Sth Aust., as well as a record of the marriage of Robert James Martin McBride and Elizabeth Dunn in Adelaide on 26/1/1856. It also lists birth records for the following children whose parents are named as James Martin McBride and Elizabeth Dunn: Elizabeth McBride (20/9/1858, Burra, Sth Aust.), Robert Martin McBride (26/10/1860, Sth Aust.), Caroline McBride (14/8/1862, Burra Creek, Sth Aust.), Isabella McBride (11/4/1864, Burra Creek, Sth Aust.), Maryann McBride (21/2/1866, Burra Creek, Sth Aust.), Albert James McBride (4/7/1868, Burra Creek, Sth Aust.), Thomas McBride (31/5/1870, Burra Creek, Sth Aust.), Jane McBride (28/6/1872, Sth Aust.), Alice Finis McBride (7/12/1877, Burra Creek, Sth Aust.) and Norman Harold McBride (21/1/1880, Kooringa, Burra Creek, Sth Aust.). In each case the Pedigree Resource File gives the father's name as Robert James Martin McBride.

Bible Institute
The Advertiser, 14/2/1914

James Martin McBride, or Robert James Martin McBride, who arrived in Adelaide in 1855 with only five shillings to his name, ultimately became a wealthy pastoralist noted for philanthropy. For example, according to the Manning Index, The Observer of 29/11/1913 reported as follows:

For many years the Salvation Army Maternity Home had been established in Carrington Street, but the work has now outgrown the accommodation.... Through the generosity of Mr. J.M. McBride of Kooringa the cash problem was settled as that gentleman on the representation of Commissioner Hay was convinced of the necessity of such an institution. It will be known as the Salvation Army McBride Maternity Hospital.

Similarly, in 1910 he built the McBride Cottage Homes for elderly residents of Burra (see Burra Cottages), and he also made a donation of £4000 to the establishment of a Bible Institute. Some, no doubt, would also regard this as a worthwhile use of money.

The book Australia Unlimited by Edwin J. Brady (George Robertson & Company, Melbourne, c.1915), pp 1011–1014, has a description McBride's career, and says, in part, "In 1859 Mr. McBride began his career as a pastoralist, having arranged for purchase rights over a large tract of country in the Burra district adjoining the Government Wells and North-West Bend Stations. This property he named ‘The Gums’. He made a complete success of his new enterprise, using to the utmost advantage his native industry and shrewd business instincts. Such men as R.J.M. McBride have laid the foundations of a new nation the basic qualities energy, enterprise, and honesty." There must, however, be some doubt concerning this last quality, since the Manning Index also quotes The Register of 17/7/1885 as saying this:

The officials in the Lands Department have had occasion to suspect that Robert James Martin McBride, senior, former owner of the Gums station, situated 30 miles east of Burra, and his family had committed a breach of the Act under which they had selected sections of land in the Hundred... The government, from enquiries made, doubted whether the sons and daughters were bona fide selectors or whether the land was taken up in the interests of the father and not in their own; the second charge being that McBride, senior, sold all the selections with the station to his oldest son, who subsequently sold them to Messrs Cockrum & Pearse, the present proprietors of the station...

The full article is available online, through Trove.

It appears that R.J.M. McBride became increasingly cantankerous and unpredictable in his old age, and in 1917 he sued his daughter, Caroline Sandland, for the recovery of the property on which she lived, and which (she claimed) had been verbally promised to her. The South Australian Supreme Court found in favour of Mrs Sandland, but an appeal to the High Court reversed the decision. I suspect that the South Australian judge, hearing the evidence in person, thought the daughter's evidence more trustworthy than the father's, while the High Court, reviewing the evidence in Melbourne, would not have been influenced by the body language of the witnesses. (This is probably contempt of court ... maybe they will send me to jail!) Surely one significant outcome of the case was the transferral of a lot of McBride money to members of the legal profession.

William and Florence

Like his father, William James McBride was a pastoralist. He lived at Aberdeen, Burra, South Australia.

William and Florence McBride had the following children: Cyril Stodart Martin (6/11/1885, Burra), May Bessie Hughes (1/4/1887, near Redruth), Sydney William Hamilton (13/7/1889, near Kooringa), Vera Irene Jessie (14/3/1891, Burra), Lindsay Disher (23/3/1895, Burra), Robert James (6/2/1898, Graham Town, Burra), Eileen Florence (5/10/1902, Redruth). William died on 3/6/1932 at Aberdeen (South Australia), and Florence died on 21/12/1945 at Glenelg.

Cyril Stodart Martin McBride enlisted in the AIF on 8/6/1916. At that time he was an accountant, living in Perth W.A.. His service record reveals that he attained the rank of lieutenant, and also that in February 1919 he was dangerously ill, suffering from pneumonia. However, he survived, and returned to Australia in November 1919. He married Vivienne Gabrielle Craig on 21/3/1921; they did not have any children.

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land sale
The Advertiser, 23/1/1913
land sale
The Advertiser, 10/4/1914

May Bessie Hughes McBride married Frederick John Jude on 5/2/1916. They had one adopted daughter, Dawn McBride Jude.

Sydney William Hamilton McBride married Evelyn Tennant Scott in 1911. They had five children: Richard Campbell McBride (b. 24/6/1913), Donald Hamilton McBride (b. 7/6/1916), Alec Scott McBride (b. 26/8/I918), Nancy Hamilton McBride (b. 2/12/1920), Joan Tennant McBride (b. 2/12/1920).

Vera Irene Jessie McBride married Joseph Leonard Hogan circa 1913. They had ten children: Elizabeth Maureen Hogan (b. 27/6/1914), William Leonard Hogan (b. 22/5/1915), John Hogan (b. 12/6/1916), Robert Alexander Hogan (b. 14/7/1917), Donald Jude Hogan (b. 28/1/1919), Justin Scott Hogan (b. 1/4/1921), Pauline Vera Hogan (b. 7/3/1922), Cyril David Hogan (b. 27/7/1924), Josephine Mary Hogan (b. 11/4/1927), Helen Catherine Hogan (b. 6/8/1931).

Lindsay Disher McBride served in France in the Great War. His service record shows that he enlisted on 28/10/1916, and gave his age as 21 7/12 years, which was correct. Curiously, someone has crossed out 21 7/12 and replaced it by 25 2/12. According to Centennial Park Cemetery records, Lindsay Dicher McBride was buried on 18/4/1968, and was aged 75. I think he was actually 73.

page number .

Lindsay Disher McBride married Lenard Gloria Summerton in Broken Hill in 1921. They had a son named William James born in Broken Hill on 22/12/1921, and a son named Angus Lindsay born in South Australia in 1923. Quite probably there were further children that I do not know about.

South Australian records give Angus Lindsay McBride's mother's first name as Lanaird, but the record of her burial at Centennial Park has it as Lenard, the same as the Broken Hill marriage record. She died on 21/6/1988, aged 87, but I do not know where she was born. She evidently had a second marriage, late in life, to a man named Bannear.

wJMcB birth
The Advertiser 30/12/1921

Robert James McBride married Marjory Edith Hitchcox. I know of two daughters: Jean Mary (b. 1922) and Shirley Patricia (b. 1923). Robert James McBride was buried in the Burra Cemetery on 8/12/1947, and Marjorie Edith McBride was buried in the Burra Cemetery on 26/7/1985.

Eileen Florence McBride died aged 8 months, and was buried at Burra on 28/6/1903.

WJMcB obit
Burra Record 15/6/1932
Florence death
The Advertiser 22/10/1945

Robert and Laura

The Advertiser, 12/4/1914

Robert Martin McBride—another McBride pastoralist—lived at Kooringa, Burra, South Australia.

Robert and Laura McBride had the following children: Elsie Isabel (13/7/1886, Kooringa), Royal Thomas (10/11/1889), Melva Iris (13/12/1891, Redruth), Laura Doris (26/9/1898, Redruth), Joyce Stodart (21/8/1905, Redruth), Robert Dudley (1908).

Robert Martin McBride died on 24/10/1944. His obituary in the Burra Record (see below) says that he left a widow, four daughters and two sons; so I conjecture that the six children listed above were all the children Robert and Laura had, and they were all alive in 1944. However, when Laura Christina McBride died on 29/7/1953 her surviving children were (according to a death notice in The Advertiser) Elsie, Royal, Melva, Doris, Joyce and Jack. So I am forced to conjecture that Robert Dudley McBride was known as Jack.

Roy Thomas McBride enlisted in the AIF on 30/9/1915. His service record shows that he served in France in 1916 and 1917. In November 1917 he was transferred to hospital in Cardiff suffering from gas shell poisoning. In June 1918 he was returned to Australia as medically unfit, suffering from chronic nephritis. After the war he married Elsie Liversidge. They had four children: Melva Ivy McBride (b. 18/1/1921), Peter Thomas McBride (b. 29/6/1923), Robert Liversedge McBride (b. 30/7/1924), Patricia Joyce McBride (b. 14/6/1928). Royal Thomas McBride died on 14/8/1970, and was cremated at Centennial Park.

page number .

Elsie Isabel McBride married John Lloyd Price. They had two children: Thomas McBride Price (b. 14/11/1915), Joan Isabel Price (b. 31/3/1917).

Marriage notice
The Advertiser, 21/5/1914

Melva Iris McBride married Oscar Sturt Symon. They had two children: Robert Josiah Symon (b. 21/12/1922), David Sturt Symon (b. 15/6/1925).

Laura Doris McBride married Linley Matheson Gordon in 1920. They had daughters named Helen Margaret (b. 1921) and Pauline Jeanette (b. 1927). Quite possibly there were further children.

Robert Dudley McBride married Lois Osborne Fitch on 18/4/1933. A marriage notice was placed in The Advertiser some five months after the event.

Marriage notice
The Advertiser 23/9/1933

I have been told that Joyce Stodart McBride married Winston Frederick Banks in 1941. A Joyce Banks died on 5/7/1991, and was cremated at Centennial Park.

RJMcB obit
Burra Record, 21/11/1944
Laura death
The Advertiser, 30/7/1953

Sarah, sister of George Robert Hughes

Sarah Hughes married James Hartley Mann on 4/7/1819 at Saint Peter's, Leeds. Whether this Sarah was really George Robert's sister I do not know; however, she was about the right age. James and Sarah had sons named William Mann and George Hartley Mann, both of whom were baptized at St Peter's in Leeds. William was baptized on 28/8/1820, and George was baptized on 8/5/1825. They also had a daughter named Keziah Mann, who was born on 17/7/1828 and baptized at Knaresborough on 11/1/1829, and a daughter named Christiana, whose birth was registered Knaresborough in the December quarter of 1839.

The Mann family can be found in the 1841 census living on High Street Knaresborough. Conveniently, the census enumerator has not rounded the ages down to multiples of 5, and Sarah's age is given as 41. This is not quite consistent with the baptism date of 10/2/1799 for Sarah Hughes; she should have been 42. Still, such slight inaccuracies are common enough in the census records. Moreover, the death of a 67 year old Sarah Mann was registered at Leeds in the March quarter of 1866. This is consistent with Sarah Hughes' baptism date and not with Sarah Mann's census age. I am inclined to think that I have got the right person.

At the 1841 census James' age was given as 46, while the ages of William, George, Kezia and Christiana were given as 21, 16, 12 and 1 respectively. This is all consistent with the birth or baptism information for the children. The census records that James was a hairdresser in 1841. In fact his establishment on High Street Knaresborough is listed in Pigot's Directory of 1834 and White's Directory of 1837. Evidently his son William followed in James' footsteps, since at the 1881 census we find a 60 year old hairdresser named William H Mann, a widower, living at 10 Stamford Street Leeds. William's 18 year old son George, who was born at Knaresborough, is also a hairdresser.

William Hughes Mann married in Knaresborough in the first quarter of 1842. The record of his household at the 1871 census reveals that his wife was named Elizabeth, but since three of the four women who were married in Knaresborough in the first quarter of 1842 had that name, I do not know her maiden surname. William and Elizabeth had at least three children: Elizabeth Mann (birth registered in Knaresborough in the second quarter of 1847), William James Hughes Mann (birth registered in Knaresborough in the last quarter of 1857) and George Mann (birth registered in Knaresborough in the second quarter of 1862). Elizabeth Hartley Mann married Frederick Lee in Leeds in the third quarter of 1868. At the 1871 census, Frederick and Elizabeth, with their one year old son Maurice and two year old daughter Lilly, were in the household of Elizabeth's parents, as were Elizabeth's brothers George and William James.

George Hartley Mann was married in Knaresborough in the September quarter of 1848. I think that his wife was Jane Farrer. There is an 1871 census record that shows George H. Mann, aged 47, born at Harrowgate, living in Rugby, Warwickshire, with his 52 year old wife Jane, who was born in Knaresborough, and children Sarah (aged 15, born in Knaresborough) and Ann (aged 12, born in Rugby). If this is the right George and his age was correctly recorded, then he was over one year old when he was baptized (which is perfectly plausible). It is a little surprising that he was born at Harrowgate rather than Leeds or Knaresborough, but since Knaresborough is very close to Harrowgate it still seems probable that this George H. Mann was George Hartley Mann.

George Hartley Mann died in West Derby (Liverpool) in the June quarter of 1896, aged 71. Unfortunately I could not find him in the 1881 census.

There were a surprisingly large number of different people named Kezia Mann living in the West Riding of Yorkshire in the first half of the nineteenth century. It seems probable that Kezia daughter of James Hartley Mann and Sarah Hughes was the Kezia Mann who married Oswald Craggs in Knaresborough in the second quarter of 1845. It seems that they had seven children: Elizabeth (born 1846), Harriet (born 1848), Jane (born 1851), James Oswald (born 1852), Emily (born 1856), Sarah (born 1857) and Ellen Matilda (born 1870). Kezia Craggs died in Knaresborough in the second quarter of 1882, aged 53.

Christiana Mann married John Ball in the September quarter of 1857. At the 1861 census she is to be found in her parents' household, now back in Leeds at 10 Neville Street Mill Hill. She has a 3 year old daughter named Eliza. Her husband is not there, but apparently not dead since Christiana is listed as married rather than widowed. Her parents are the only other people in the household. James' occupation is given as “hairdresser and curator”; his age is 66. The others have no occupations listed. Sarah's age is 62, Christiana's 21.

James Hartley Mann died in Leeds in the June quarter of 1869, his age recorded as 73.

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