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Thomas Worden and Ann Eva

Cornish origins

Thomas Worden was born on 27/6/1835, the son of Thomas Worden and Jane Huntington, who were married in Plymouth St Andrew's on 1/10/1833. Thomas' birth date is given in an obituary (see below), and the date is consistent with his age as recorded in various other places: the 1841 census (taken on June 6th) gives his age as 5, the 1851 census (taken on March 30th) gives his age as 15, and the parish register entry for his marriage on 19/12/1854 (see gives his age as 19.

Ann Eva
Ann Eva

Photo by John Reynolds of Padstow
Watch Maker and Photographer

The obituary says that Thomas was born in "the Parish of Indellion", Cornwall, but although the 1841 and 1851 census records show the family living in Endellion, the 1851 record gives Thomas' birth place as Plymouth, Devon. The same record says that Thomas' father, brother (Isaac) and sister (Elizabeth) were all born in Endellion, and surely the fact that Thomas' birthplace is not listed as Endellion can only indicate that indeed he was not born there. I have not obtained any birth record that confirms it, but I am confident that Thomas was born in Plymouth.

Nevertheless, Thomas was baptized in Endellion on 27/2/1837. It is noted in the parish register that Thomas was 20 months old at his baptism; observe that indeed 27/2/1837 is exactly 20 months after 27/6/1835.

Thomas' mother was born in St Germans, Cornwall, the daughter of John Huntington and Elizabeth Pinch. According to an 1841 census record Elizabeth Pinch was born in Cornwall; in fact it seems very likely that she was born in St Kew. However, the origins of John Huntington are unknown to me. Although his wife and his children were all born either in Cornwall or in Devon, it is quite possible that he came from the north of England, where the name Huntington is much commoner than it is in Cornwall and Devon.

Ann Eva was born in Wendron, Cornwall, in 1835, the daughter of Samuel Eva and Elizabeth Caddy, who were married in Wendron on 19/1/1824. The parish register record of her marriage to Thomas provides confirmation that she was born in 1835 (since, like her husband, she was 19 on 19/12/1854), and also confirms that her father's name was Samuel. We can also be confident that her mother's maiden name was Caddy, since one of Ann's brothers was named Richard Caddy Eva.

The censuses of 1841 and 1851 each list two Ann Evas of roughly the right age, but the one that married Thomas Worden was definitely the daughter of a Samuel Eva, and the 1841 census information then identifies her uniquely. The other Ann Eva was aged 6 at the 1841 census. At the time of the 1851 census both Ann Evas had left home and were working as house servants, one at Gweek and one at Higher Scarsick. Their ages are given as 16 and 15 respectively, meaning that the latter is (probably) ours. Both Ann Evas were born in Wendron, as were all other members of our Ann Eva's family, with the exception her youngest brother (Richard Caddy Eva). He was born in Altarnun in 1845, and the family (without Ann) was living in Altarnun in 1851.

Amelia Huntington?

The identity of the lady in the above photo is unknown, although she is believed to be some relative of Thomas or Ann. The photo was taken in Seaton, Devon, and I can only assume that, whoever she was, she had gone to Seaton for a holiday, because I do not believe that Thomas or Ann had any relative who lived in Seaton. It cannot be Thomas' mother, since she died before the autotype photographic process was invented. It could perhaps be Ann's mother, but my best guess is that it is Thomas' mother's sister, Amelia Huntington (who was, I think, wealthier and of higher social status than Ann's mother).

Thomas Worden and Ann Eva were married in Linkinhorne on 19/12/1854. According to the parish register, Thomas was a labourer whose residence was in Endellion. No occupation was given for Ann, whose residence was in Henwood (which is in Linkinhorne parish). It is possible that Ann's parents were living in Henwood at this time. One of the marriage witnesses was Joseph M. Phillips, presumably the Joseph Medland Phillips who had married Ann's elder sister Elizabeth.

Image from Linkinhorne parish register (see


Two weeks after their marriage, Thomas and Ann left England for South Australia, sailing on the Hooghly (see the passenger list), which departed Plymouth on 3/1/1855 and arrived at Port Adelaide on 19/4/1855.

Shortly after their arrival in South Australia Thomas and Ann settled in Williamstown, near the southern edge of the Barossa Valley, where they lived for the rest of their lives. Thomas Worden's name appears on electoral rolls for the South Australian district of Barossa in the 1890's and 1900's; his address is given as "near Williamstown" and his occupation as "sawyer". Newspaper extracts reveal that he also contracted for council work, and kept bees. How much farming he may have done, is unclear.

The South Australian Advertiser 28/1/1870
The South Australian Advertiser 2/11/1871
The Bunyip (Gawler) 22/5/1885
The South Australian Advertiser 25/12/1888     Click to display text

The State Library of South Australia has a photograph showing Ann with five other Williamstown women (Mrs James Wilson, Mrs John Warren, Mrs Albert Gower, Mrs Robert Ross and Mrs Joseph Holmes), workers for the first St Peter's (Williamstown) Church Bazaar, 24 November 1882.

bazaar report

WILLIAMSTOWN, November 30.

A grand bazaar was opened in the council hall on Friday last in aid of St. Peter's Church endowment fund. The usual miscellaneous articles and goods were deposited, including Swiss, Parisian, and Indian goods, and an excellent collection of photographic views of various parts of the colony and neighborhood, taken and presented by Mr. J. Warren. Some good music was discoursed, at intervals. The stalls were presided over by Mesdames Warren, J. Wilson, Worden, A. Gower, Holmes, and Misses Warren (3), Hogarth, Hodgson, Hattam, and others. Over £100 was collected. –Fine rains have fallen since Sunday last, suspending all hay operations. The weather is cloudy and cold. All are busy now cutting and carting. The crops are good. –Our Musical Union are practising for Christmas.

The South Australian Advertiser 12/12/1882

Ann Worden died on 15/5/1888. I presume she died at home, since the registration record gives the place as "near Williamstown". I do not know where she is buried.

Thomas Worden died on 9/8/1921 and is buried in the Williamstown Cemetery in plot 27. The burial record incorrectly has his name as "Warden", and I did not know about it when I visited the Williamstown Cemetery. I think that either his grave is unmarked or the headstone is illegible; otherwise I would have noticed it.

The Advertiser 10/8/1921

According to a probate notice in the Advertiser of 7/11/1921, the gross value of Thomas Worden's estate was £520.

The following obituary of Thomas Worden appeared in the Gawler newspaper The Bunyip on 2/9/1921:

The late Mr Thomas Worden, who died in the Hutchinson Hospital on August 9, was an old and highly respected resident of Williamstown, having lived in the district since August 1856. He was born in the Parish of Indellion, Bristol Channel, Cornwall, on June 27, 1835. He was married on 19th December 1854 and arrived in Australia in the ship named "Hoogley" on April 15, 1855. Mr. Worden, whose wife predeceased him 35 years ago, leaves four sons — T. S. H. and E. J. Worden, Williamstown; I. J. E. and A. E. A. Worden, Victoria; seven daughters — Mesdames G. Wilson, A. Johnson, W. Gower, S. Hammatt, W. Kennewell (all of Williamstown) and J. Buckley, Mannum, and P. Howlett, Willaston. There are 45 grandchildren and 19 greatgrandchildren.
greatgrandpa Tom?
(Believed to be) Thomas Worden
Ann and first-born
Ann Worden

All of the images of people shown on this page were sent to me by relatives descended from Thomas and Ann. Unfortunately, in most cases the identities of the people concerned are unknown. The two images of Ann shown above are exceptions: the owner is apparently confident that they are images of Ann. I am convinced, because it does look like the same person in both images. Another image of her (at an older age) is also available.

Considerably more doubt is attached to the images that may or may not depict Thomas. It is my guess that the photo shown above was taken in the mid to late 1890's, and that the man in it was in his early 60's. I think it probably is Thomas. It seems to me quite possible that the middle image of the three below shows the same man at a younger age, and I think the other two are probably sons of Thomas and Ann. On the back of the leftmost of the three someone wrote "Great Granpa Worden", which would mean Thomas, but someone else has added a question mark. I think it is more likely to be T. S. H. Worden, the eldest son of Thomas and Ann. (See below for some other (probable) images of T. S. H. Worden.)

1st Worden man 3rd Worden man 2nd Worden man

Descendants of Thomas and Ann

I believe that Thomas and Ann had 14 children altogether: the eleven listed in the obituary and three who predeceased their father. Here is the complete list.

What a magnificent collection of given names!

Note that the eldest son was very properly given the names of his grandfathers: Thomas and Samuel. Although the birth registration record only lists two christian names, in fact he had a third: Huntington (his father's mother's maiden name). It is perhaps worth observing that Thomas Worden would not have remembered John Huntington, his maternal grandfather, who died when Thomas was not quite two years old. But no doubt he knew that John Huntington had been a Master in the Royal Navy, and quite likely he was proud of this fact.

The second son of Thomas and Ann may have been named after his father's brother (Isaac) and his mother's uncle (Josiah Eva, who—so I believe—had come to South Australia a few years before Thomas and Ann). Their first daughter was given her mother's surname as a christian name; her other two christian names, Jane and Amelia, were the names of Thomas' mother and aunt (his mother's elder sister). Richard and Warwick, the christian names of the fourth son, had both occurred several times in earlier generations (see the Samuel Worden and Jane Calloway page), and Cordelia and Caroline were also used by earlier generations of Wordens. However, Thomas and Ann apparently exercised originality in coming up with the names Ambrosine, Blanche, Adeline and Adelia.

Two of the daughters died in infancy: Gertrude Mabel Worden died on 29/7/1875, aged 15 months, and Lelia Ethel Caroline Worden died on 24/7/1875, aged 3 years. The others all survived to adulthood. I have found marriage records for those who remained in South Australia, and varying amounts of extra information about their descendants.

— Isaac J. E. Worden and Albert E. A. Worden —

It seems likely that Isaac and Albert went to Victoria in 1886, because the notice below appeared in the "Missing Friends" column of The Argus (a Victorian newspaper) on 14/7/1886.


There were not many Wordens in South Australia at this time, and since we know that I. J. E. Worden went from South Australia to Victoria, I think it is a safe bet that T. J. E. in the notice should have been I. J. E.. Probably someone misread someone else's handwriting. Perhaps even the handwriting was so hard to interpret that something like "I. J. E. Worden and A. E. A. [ditto] (brothers)" was converted to "I. J. E. Worden and A. E. A. Crothers". It would truly have been a remarkable coincidence if a different South Australia Worden with initials similar to I. J. E. travelled to Victoria in the company of a person with initials A. E. A..

Albert Edward Augustus Worden died in the Ancona District of Victoria in 1932, aged 72, and Isaac Josiah Eva Worden died in the Mansfield District of Victoria in 1937, aged 79. The death records say, more precisely, that Albert died on 25/6/1932 in Bonnie Doon, County of Anglesey, Shire of Mansfield, and Isaac died on 27/7/1937 in Bonnie Doon, Mansfield Shire, County of Delatite. This leaves me wondering whether Bonnie Doon straddles two districts, or whether the boundaries changed between 1932 and 1937. But in any case it is clear that the brothers remained in close contact with each other throughout their lives. Neither of them married, and they were both buried in the Bonnie Doon Cemetery.

Albert's death record states that he died of senility and epilepsy, and had no medical attendant in his final illness. The Deputy Coroner, George Redfern J.P., deemed that no inquest was necessary. An inquest was held into Isaac's death, and the Deputy Coroner found that he died of senile decay.

Albert's death record correctly states that he was born in Williamstown South Australia, and his parents were Thomas Worden, a farmer, and Ann Worden née Eva. No doubt Isaac provided this information. By contrast, on Isaac's death record "unknown" is written in the space provided for parents' names, and his birthplace is incorrectly given as "South Africa".

   Bonnie Doon Tuesday 21 Jan 19.1.36
Recieved From Mr Joseph
  Warden of Bonnie Doon now
   Residing at Mr Kernians
    Property the Sum of 7/-
 seven shillings for Camp Oven
               With Thanks
                Jim James

I can only assume that the "Mr Joseph Warden" referred to in the curious receipt shown above was actually Isaac Josiah Eva Worden, and Jim James got the name wrong. But the most curious aspect of the receipt is that it is written on the back of a photo (the first photo of Thomas Worden shown above, in fact).

— Thomas S. H. Worden —

Thomas Samuel Huntington Worden married Harriet Lewis Coombe Pope on 25/1/1894 at St George Church Gawler. The groom was 37 and the bride 26.

The Advertiser 6/2/1894

Harriet's father, Samuel Pope, came from Topsham in Devon; he was baptized on 13/3/1821. He arrived in Melbourne in February 1844 on the ship Royal Consort, as a 22 year old assisted immigrant, but came to Adelaide from Melbourne via the ship Mary in March 1845. So it would seem that although the Victorian government paid his fare he quickly deserted Victoria in favour of South Australia.

Samuel's elder brother Abraham had also been an assisted immigrant to Victoria, arriving there in July 1841 on the Westminster. Since Abraham was baptized on 13/7/1815, he was probably 26 when he arrived in Melbourne, although the immigration record has his age as 24. It may be this really was his age when he made the application for assisted passage, but it also may be that he was not quite certain of his age. Like Samuel, Abraham came to South Australia in 1845 (although not on the same ship as Samuel).

The Advertiser 6/12/1892
Mary 1845
The Register 26/3/1846
The Advertiser 1/10/1896

Although Abraham's headstone says that he was 79 when he died on 25/9/1896, his baptism record tells us that in fact he was at least 81. He was married on 11/6/1845 (at the age of about 30) to Sarah Charlesworth, who was born in Sheerness, Kent. The headstone says that she was 73 when she died on 3/9/1904, which would mean that she was married at the age of 14! Perhaps the fact that his bride was so young induced Abraham to understate his age the time of his marriage, and forever afterwards.

Abe grave
See (photos by Beth Page)

The web page tells us that the marriage of Abraham and Sarah was held in St John's Church, Adelaide, and was solemnized by the Reverend Farrell. This is somewhat ironic, since earlier in 1845 Sarah Charlesworth had charged the Rev. Farrell with indecent assault. He was acquitted, but the South Australian Register made a strong attack on the conduct of the case and the manifest lack of impartiality of the magistrates involved. If the paper's account of the proceedings is accurate, then their attack was clearly justified. Nevertheless the rival newspaper, The South Australian, said that the Register's "every word betrays the existence of a deep malignity". Perhaps Mr Farrell's friends included not only certain magistrates, but also certain newspaper editors.

Click here to display transcriptions of the two articles referred to above, and a follow-up in the Register. (I have not included the Register's detailed report of the court proceedings, since I have already strayed too far from my real topic. But the proceedings confirm that Sarah Charlesworth was born in Sheerness and was a little over 14 years old.)

Samuel Pope married Ann Coombe on 13/4/1851. She was born in Swimbridge (near Barnstaple) in Devon, baptized on 22/2/1824, and arrived in South Australia on the Pakenham on 21/3/1849. Harriet was Samuel and Ann's youngest daughter, born in the Port Gawler District in 1867.

Ann Pope, née Coombe, died on 28/2/1898 at the residence of her son-in-law, T. Worden.

Ann Coomb death
The Bunyip (Gawler) 4/3/1898

Anne Coombe's brother Ephraim Coombe (or Coombs), baptized on 16/10/1828, also came to Australia, arriving in Sydney on 5/1/1855 on the ship Ebba Brahe. Images of the passenger list for this ship are available online, courtesy of the NSW State Archives: see, in particular, State Records NSW, NRS 5316, [4/4791], Ebba Brahe 5 Jan 1855, passenger list, page 12, which includes Ephraim's name and the information that he was a 26 year old agricultural labourer from Swimbridge. Ephraim came on to South Australia later in the same year, arriving in Adelaide on 12/10/1855 on the ship Eugene. Ephraim was the father of the prominent M.P. Ephraim Henry Coombe (who was thus a first cousin of Harriet Worden). The Australian Dictionary of Biography has an online biography of E. H. Coombe. See also Wikipedia's biography of E. H. Coombe (which includes a photo).

The web page Mostly Coombe has more information about this Coombe family.

ephraim arrival
The Register 13/10/1855
ephraim death
The Advertiser 11/9/1908
Grave of Thomas and Harriet
Grave of Thomas S. H. and Harriet L. Worden

Tom and Harriet Worden had seven children: Samuel Thomas Pope Worden (born at Barossa Diggings on 3/10/1894), Harriette Ann Coombe Worden (born at Barossa Diggings on 24/3/1896), Mary Ruth Mildred Worden (born at Barossa Diggings on 30/6/1897), Dora Elizabeth Huntington Warden (born at Barossa on 14/12/1898), Percy Wordan and Roy Wordan (born at Moorook on 22/2/1901, and lived for 1 hour and 8 hours respectively) and Charles Richard Ephram Worden (born at Williamstown on 22/8/1903).

The Advertiser 16/10/1894

Thomas Samuel Huntington Worden died on 6/6/1926, aged 70, and was buried on 8/6/1926 in the Williamstown Public Cemetery. Harriet Lewis Coombe Worden died on 21/9/1948, aged 81, and was buried on 23/9/1948 alongside her husband.

TSHW and family

The above photo comes from a collection of family photos belonging to a second cousin of mine. I think the people must be Thomas Samuel Huntington Worden and family, in about 1902 (before the birth of Charles). In the same collection there is also a picture labelled "Tom and Harriet Worden" (shown below) which must be from a much later date, and a picture labelled "Charlie Worden", presumably depicting Tom and Harriet's youngest son.

Tom and Harriet
Harriet's brother
The Advertiser 7/1/1942
Charlie Worden
Charlie Worden
Harriet death
The Advertiser 23/9/1948

Only five of Harriet Worden's children survived infancy. The 23/9/1948 Advertiser death notice shown above reveals that only three were still living at the time of Harriet's death. The two that predeceased her were her eldest daughter (Annie) and her youngest son (Charles).

Harriet Ann Coombe Worden did not marry; she died on 1/11/1946, aged 50, and was buried on 3/11/1946 in the Williamstown Cemetery.

Annie death
The Advertiser 2/11/1946
Annie funeral
The Advertiser 2/11/1946

Charles Richard Ephraim Worden died in a quarrying accident at Quorn on 8/7/1931.

CRE Worden death
The Advertiser and Register 14/7/1931
The Barrier Miner 16/7/1931
RAOB appeal
The Advertiser and Register 24/7/1931
The Advertiser and Register 9/7/1931

Charles R. E. Worden had married Alma L. Taylor in Broken Hill in 1928. From the newspaper items shown above we see that Charles and Alma had two children, born in 1930 and 1931. Presumably these were two of the eight grandchildren mentioned in Harriet Worden's death notice. I am inclined to think that the "1 daughter-in-law" in Harriet's death notice refers to Alma; however, it could refer to Ellen, the wife of Harriet's eldest son Samuel (to be discussed below).

Their marriage certificate shows that Charles and Alma were married on 19/9/1928 in St James' Church, South Broken Hill. Charles' deceased father's name is incorrectly recorded as Thomas Samuel Harold Worden, but Charles' other details are correct: he was 25, born in Williamstown South Australia, mother's name Harriet Pope. We learn that Charles' father had been a contractor. Charles' usual place of residence was in South Broken Hill, and, even more surprisingly, he was a greengrocer.

Alma's usual place of residence was Cockburn, South Australia, her usual occupation home duties. She was 20 years old, born in Broken Hill, her father was a grazier named George Henry Taylor and her mother's name was Evelyn Borlace.

Charlie marriage

My main reason for obtaining this marriage certificate was to enable me to discover Alma's origins. The problem was that there was no NSW birth registration for an Alma Leonora Taylor. But George H. Taylor and Evelyn had a daughter named Leonora E. Taylor born in Broken Hill in 1908. It is unclear how she acquired the name Alma.

Alma's mother, Evelyn Borlace, was born in the Clare District of South Australia in 1884. Her parents were William Henry Borlace and Elizabeth Merrifield, who were married in St Austell, Cornwall, in 1866, and arrived in South Australia via the ship Clyde on 22/4/1878. They had five children when they arrived, and three more were born in South Australia. Evelyn married George Henry Taylor in the Adelaide District in 1905, and as well as the daughter Leonora born in 1908 they had a son George H. born in 1906 (also in Broken Hill).

Alma's father, George Henry Taylor, was the son of James Henry Taylor and Mary Larwood, who were married in the Clare District of South Australia in 1881. George was the eldest of nine children, all born in the Clare District. His brother Ernest William Taylor married Evelyn Borlace's sister Emma Merrifield Borlace.

Alma Leonora Worden, widow of Charles Richard Ephraim Worden, married again in 1934; her second husband was named Arundel James Waters. In 1942 Alma was widowed for a second time.

AJ Waters death
The Advertiser 22/5/1942

Arundel James Waters is buried at Laura. I do not know whether Arundel and Alma had any children.

In 1935, 1936 and 1937 The Advertiser carried some In Memoriam notices dedicated to Charlie Worden. Two of these (in 1936 and 1937) were placed by Charlie's pal Bob, whose identity of course is unknown to me. The second 1936 notice, placed by C. Stark and P. and B. Morris and family of Broken Hill, describes Charlie Worden as "our dear nephew and cousin"; the second 1937 notice, placed by Perce, Bertha and Stan Morris, describes Charlie as "our dear cousin". But it seems to me that Charlie Worden did not have any genuine genealogical link with these people: Percival and Stanley Morris were sons of Joseph Morris and Sarah May Hancock, and Perce's wife Laura Bertha Stark was the daughter of Charles Henry August Stark and Charlotte Larwood. Since the surnames Morris, Hancock, Stark and Larwood do not occur in Charlie Worden's ancestry, presumably these people were Alma's relatives rather than Charlie's.

It does seem that Charlotte Larwood was the sister of Alma's grandmother Mary Larwood. I expect that the C. Stark in the 1936 notice was Charlotte rather than Charles, and she called Charlie Worden nephew on the grounds that he was married to her great niece. But there is no way that Stan Morris was Charlie's cousin!

1937 In Memoriam
The Advertiser 8/7/1937
1936 In Memoriam
The Advertiser 8/7/1936
1935 In Memoriam
The Advertiser 9/7/1935

The 1935 In Memoriam notice seems to be telling us that Charlie's children were named May and Les. Their names were actually Marjorie and Leslie.

Charles death
The Bunyip (Gawler) 17/7/1931

The engagement of Marjorie Alma Worden to Ian Brooksby, son of W. Brooksby of Horsham, was announced on 31/3/1948.

The Advertiser 31/3/1948

It is interesting that the above notice calls Marjorie the eldest daughter of Mrs A. Waters and the late Mr C. Worden, rather than the only daughter of Mrs A. Waters and the late Mr C. Worden. Perhaps the conclusion should be that Alma had children, including one or more daughters, by her second marriage. But I am not really prepared to conjecture this, having failed to uncover any more solid evidence of such children.

A newspaper search found one other occurrence of the name Marjorie Alma Worden: the Law Courts report in the 16/8/1947 issue of The Advertiser has the details of a case in which Marjorie Alma Worden, a nurse from Laura, was a witness. One of Marjorie's friends was stabbed with a pocket knife, although the victim believed, and the accused man claimed, that the stabbing was accidental. Apparently both parties were intoxicated at the time.

Ian Albion Brooksby's parents were William Alfred Brooksby and Lyla Daphne Hutchinson, who were married in Horsham on 13/3/1925. Ian was born in 1826, and I think he was their second child.

Marjorie Worden did indeed marry Ian Brooksby. And, to make the story even more complicated, Marjorie's mother Alma Leonora Waters married Ian's father William Alfred Brooksby. His first marriage had ended in a divorce in 1947.

William Alfred Brooksby was buried on 25/10/1973 in the Laura Cemetery, and Alma Leonora Brooksby was buried on 16/2/1977 in the Laura Cemetery. (Note that although this burial record has her second name as Lenore, a list of Laura Cemetery headstones has it as Leanora.) William and Alma had twin daughters, named Roslyn Ann and Marralyn Joy, who were born in May 1949 and lived for 6 days and 18 days respectively. Rosyln was buried on 3/6/1949 and Marralyn was buried on 15/6/1949.

Ian Albion Brooksby died on 4/2/1952. He is also buried in the Laura Cemetery. I suppose that it is quite likely that Marjorie married again, but I have no further information.

Found dead
The Advertiser 5/2/1952
Ian death
The Advertiser 5/2/1952
1953 Brooksby
The Advertiser 4/2/1953
1954 Brooksby
The Advertiser 4/2/1954

Mary Ruth Mildred Worden, the elder of the two surviving daughters mentioned in Harriet Worden's death notice, did not marry. It appears that prior to July 1947 her home was situated three-quarters of a mile north-west of Williamstown, on the Gawler Road. My guess is that this had originally been the home of her Worden grandparents (Thomas and Ann), and had passed to Mary's father (their eldest son). When Mary's father died (in 1926) the property may have passed to Mary's eldest brother, Sam, but by 1935 he had certainly moved away from the Williamstown district. So I guess that by then the property was left to Harriet and her two unmarried daughters, Annie and Mary.

As mentioned above, Annie died in November 1946. Her funeral notice refers to the residence of Mrs Harriet Worden, Williamstown, which could possibly refer to the place on the Gawler Road, but my guess is that the 79 year old Harriet had moved into the township of Williamstown itself. If this is correct then from November 1946 Mary had sole possession of the Gawler Road property.

M. R. M. Worden got her name in the paper in September 1947 when her house was broken into and property to the value of £12 10/- was stolen. An ex-soldier named Edwin William Zucker was convicted of the crime. He said that he was drunk at the time, and claimed to be unable to clearly remember his actions. He made full restitution. The court placed Zucker on a £25 good behaviour bond, one condition being abstinence from alcohol for three years.

Shortly after this incident Mary sold the Gawler Road property, as well as five cows, a horse, buggy, dray, various items of farm equipment, a camp oven and all the household furniture. Perhaps the camp oven was the same one (see above) that was bought for seven shillings in 1936! It seems likely that Mary went to live with her mother in Williamstown.

Drink his downfall
The Advertiser 2/9/1947
clearing out
The Advertiser 12/7/1947

Mary Ruth Mildred died on 4/1/1967, and was buried in the Williamstown cemetery.

Dora Elizabeth Huntington Worden, Harriet Worden's youngest daughter, married George Robert Jackson (of Lucindale) at Lyndoch on 3/1/1925. The marriage, which produced six children, ended in divorce in 1946. In 1944 George Robert Jackson had been sentenced to four years jail, after pleading guilty to a charge of incest. (See

Dora marriage
The Advertiser 6/2/1925
Dora divorce
The Advertiser 7/5/1946

George Robert Jackson died on 27/8/1948. A probate notice published in January 1949 has the information that he was a mason and carpenter.

GR Jackson death
The Advertiser 30/8/1948
GR Jackson probate
Border Watch 27/1/1949

Three of the six Jackson children died in childhood: Ruby Dora Jackson was born and died in 1928, Henry Worden Jackson died in January 1930, aged 6 months, and John Robert Jackson died in 1939. The other three were Lucy Harriet (20/9/1925 – 24/10/1963), Tom and Charlie. Dora Elizabeth Huntington Jackson died on 17/7/1990, and is buried in the Willaston Cemetery.

Dora grave
See (photos by Beth Page)

Tom Jackson's wife's name was Laura Margaret, née Brennan. She died on 1/4/1972, and is buried in the Willunga Cemetery.

Grandma MacFarlane
The Advertiser 5/8/1950
GR Jackson in Memoriam
The Advertiser 26/8/1950
Laura grave

So far we have only accounted for five of the eight grandchildren mentioned in Harriet Worden's death notice (since surely the three deceased Jackson children were not counted). So the remaining three must have been children of Harriet's eldest son, Samuel. But I have no more direct evidence of their existence and identities.

Samuel Thomas Pope Worden (40) married Ellen Kathleen Williams (28, daughter of Archibald Campbell Williams) at St Matthews Church, Quorn, on 4/5/1935. Samuel and his future parents-in-law had a narrow escape when a train and Samuel's truck had a coming-together at Quorn in April 1935.

close shave
The Advertiser 18/4/1935

Samuel, who was a carrier, had another accident in his lorry in 1941.

car smash
The Mail 31/5/1941

Samuel Thomas Pope Worden died on 18/9/1973, and is buried in the Quorn Cemetery. Ellen Kathleen Worden died in 2010.

STP Worden grave
Private Harold Wilson
The Advertiser 19/2/1917
The Advertiser 19/2/1917

— Eva J. A. Wilson —

The Mrs G. Wilson mentioned in Thomas Worden's obituary was Eva Jane Amelia Worden. She married George Wilson, whose father was named James Wilson, on 18/10/1881, at Holy Trinity Church Lyndoch; the bride was 20 and the groom 22.

Eva and George
Eva and George Wilson

I know of the following children: Leila Eva Gertrude Wilson (born 28/7/1882), Bernice Eudora Annie Wilson (born 2/10/1883, buried 24/11/1897), George Gerald Wilson (born 21/5/1885, died 30/10/1969, buried at Whyalla), Rupert Eva Wilson (born 31/5/1887, buried 12/9/1955 at Willaston), Ethel Blanche Adelia Wilson (born 6/7/1889), Flora May Amelia Wilson (born 16/9/1891), Thomas James Wilson (born 28/1/1894), Harold Wallace Wilson and Laura Mabel Lilian Wilson (born 18/9/1896), Audrey Beatrice Edith Wilson (born 7/12/1897) and Sydney Arthur Wilson (born 2/4/1902). All the children were born at Williamstown.

Harold Wallace Wilson enlisted in the AIF on 9/3/1916, aged 19 years and 7 months. His service record shows that at the time of his enlistment he was a butcher. He was unmarried. He was 5 feet 3½ inches tall, weighed 112 lbs, of fresh complexion, had blue eyes and brown hair. He served in France from 24/9/1916 to 2/12/1916, when he was killed in action.

page number .
The Register 2/12/1922

Harold's brother Thomas James Wilson married Myrtle May Haworth in 1915. She was born in Broken Hill in 1894; I think that her parents were John Haworth and Jane Bothera, who were married in the Clare District of South Australia in 1889. Thomas and Myrtle had daughters named Thora Wallace Wilson (b. 28/7/1916), Barbara Wilson (b. 1922) and June Wilson (b. 1924).

The Advertiser 25/8/1916

Thomas, Myrtle and family apparently moved from Lyndoch to Renmark at some stage, since Thora W. Wilson, eldest daughter of Mr and Mrs T. J Wilson of Renmark, married James William Lock (also of Renmark) in 1938. A report of this event in the "Recent Weddings" column of The Advertiser of 9/11/1938 tells us that best man was Mr M. V. Wilson; no doubt this was Murray Vincent, son of Thora's uncle George Gerald Wilson (who also lived at Renmark at this time). Thora's sister Barbara was bridesmaid. The Mrs A. G Bennett of Lyndoch who gave a supper after the ceremony was Thora's aunt Ethel Blanche Adelia Bennett (née Wilson). Ethel Blanche Adelia and George Gerald will be discussed further below.

Thora Wedding
The Advertiser 9/11/1938

Thomas Wilson's last abode was at Victor Harbour. He died on 8/7/1969, aged 75, and was cremated at Centennial Park. Thomas' widow Myrtle died on 10/8/1987, aged 93; she also was cremated at Centennial Park.

Harold Wallace Wilson's twin sister, Laura Mabel Lilian Wilson, married Vernon Albert Walter Riggs (son of John Andrew Riggs) on 23/2/1921, at St Peters Church Williamstown. The bride was 24 and the groom 26. Vernon's mother was Elizabeth Smith, who married John Andrew Riggs in the Adelaide District in 1876. John Andrew Riggs and Elizabeth Smith had eleven children altogether, Vernon being the youngest.

Vernon served in the A.I.F. from January 1915 to May 1919, and his service record is viewable online. We discover that he was born near Burra, South Australia, and enlisted on 15/1/1915, aged 20 years and 2 months; he was 6 feet 2 inches tall, weighed 168 lbs, had blue eyes, light hair and a fair complexion. He was a wheelwright by trade. He was promoted to Company Sergeant Major on 17/4/1916, to 2nd Lieutenant on 31/5/1917 and to Lieutenant on 14/10/1917. He was wounded in action in France on 3/10/1917.

Vernon's father's parents, Andrew and Caroline Riggs, with their sons Henry John, Thomas and John Andrew, and daughters Mary, Ellen Jane and Caroline, arrived in South Australia in 1855, passengers on the Thomas Arbuthnot. Andrew Riggs worked on Koonoona Station, near Burra, and his descendants (including Vernon) became prominent pastoralists. They occupy many column inches of the Burra Record, some of which are reproduced below.

Laura and Vernon Riggs had three children: John Leslie (b. 10/8/1922), James Wilson (b. 14/5/1925) and Joy (b. 30/1/1928).

John Leslie Riggs
The Chronicle 19/8/1922
Jim birth
The Register 10/6/1925
Joy birth
The Register 9/2/1928

Laura died at Burra on 7/5/1949, and was buried on 9/5/1949. Vernon died on 4/6/1978, and was cremated at Centennial Park.

H.J.Riggs obit
Burra Record 16/9/1908
J.A.Riggs obit
Burra Record 12/7/1922
Burra Record 24/12/1940
Good rains
Burra Record 23/2/1943
Vernon Laura
Burra Record 2/3/1921
Burra Record 22/2/1944
Sgt Riggs
Burra Record 22/2/1944
Big Apple
Burra Record 29/2/1944
Scots bride
Burra Record 21/5/1946
Jim engagement
The Advertiser 14/1/1947
Jim marriage
The Advertiser 17/9/1947
Homestead lost
Burra Record 17/10/1950
Burra Record 26/6/1951
wool prices
Burra Record 26/6/1951
mixed sexes
Burra record 19/1/1954
Laura Riggs death
The Mail 7/5/1949
Laura obit
Burra Record 17/5/1949
Lordswell sale
Burra Record 5/6/1951
four and threepence
The Advertiser 23/6/1951
14 pounds
The Advertiser 9/3/1951
Burra record 22/9/1953
Spring Vale
Burra record 12/10/1954
Laura death
The Advertiser 11/5/1949

A 1935 newspaper report of "Back to Williamstown" celebrations (see below) names one of the Williamstown old scholars as Mrs V. Riggs (Laura Wilson). The same report names another of the Williamstown old scholars as Mrs A. Bennett (Ethel Wilson); furthermore, Andrew George Bennett, husband of Ethel and father of Ron, Rita and Harold, died at Lyndoch on 24/2/1952, aged 72. In fact, thanks to Genealogy SA's online record search, I now know that Ethel Blanche Adelia Wilson and Andrew George Bennett were married in 1907, and their children Ronald Wilson Bennett, Rita Dorothy Bennett and Harold George Bennett, were born in 1908, 1911, and 1919 respectively. A newspaper birth notice shows that Harold was born on 27/3/1919.

Andrew George Bennett was a blacksmith. In 1938 he claimed worker's compensation because contact with coal, coal dust and coal fumes, in the course of his employment, had given him dermatitis (a fact that was not contested). The magistrate found in his favour.

I found a couple of mentions of Mr and Mrs A. G. Bennett in The Advertiser in reports from Lyndoch. It would seem that they were reasonably prominent members of the local community.

Ronald Wilson Bennett married Doris Lily Bain in 1932. She was the daughter of James Bain and Sarah Jane Chellew, born in the Crawford District in 1911. There are Enfield Memorial Park cremation records for both Ronald Wilson Bennett and Doris Lily Bennett. He died on 7/1/1989, aged 80, having last resided at Banksia Park, while she died on 21/11/1991, aged 80, having last resided at Felixstow.

I have not discovered marriage or death information for Rita Dorothy Bennett. All I know is that on one occasion she was a bridesmaid.

Harold George Bennett married Margaret Mary Robinson on 8/3/1941, at St Margaret's Church Woodville. The marriage notice tells us that she was the daughter of F. J. Robinson of New Queenstown, and also tells us that Harold was in the R.A.A.F.. I have not discovered anything else about this couple.

Ethel Blanche Bennett died on 23/2/1969, aged 79; her last abode was at Grange. She was cremated at Centennial Park.

Harold birth
The Advertiser 15/4/1919
The Advertiser 13/8/1931
netball club
The Advertiser 25/6/1937
The Advertiser 13/7/1939
Harold marriage
The Advertiser 7/3/1941
Institute VP
The Register News-Pictorial 4/9/1929
The Advertiser 8/1/1938
Harold engagement
The Advertiser 28/6/1940
Andrew Bennett
The Advertiser 26/2/1952

The second of the two Laura Riggs death notices shown above reveals that Laura's youngest sister, Audrey Beatrice Edith Wilson, was known as Bid. She never married, and died at Grange on 7/7/1987, aged 89. She also was cremated at Centennial Park.

Apparently Leila Eva Gertrude Wilson attempted a career as a teacher. The record of her service reveals that she only lasted six months, and was criticised by the inspector. I expect that she is the Miss L. Wilson named in the "Back to Williamstown" article as a former teacher and as an old scholar. She never married, and died at Mile End on 11/9/1968. She was cremated at Centennial Park.

The Advertiser 20/8/1901

Flora Wilson is also named as one of the "Back to Williamstown" participants. She also never married, and lived her final years at Mile End. She died on 21/2/1979 and was cremated at Centennial Park.

Sydney Arthur Wilson married Tessa May Papworth at Mount Gambier on 10/5/1940. Sydney and Tessa were both schoolteachers. They had a daughter born on 15/5/1944.

children's concert
Border Watch 20/5/1924
Trainee teacher
Border Watch 24/1/1929
Lady Kitty Hears
The Advertiser 24/7/1939
Quiet wedding
Border Watch 9/5/1940
The Advertiser 17/5/1944
Border Watch 1/8/1939
Border Watch 27/11/1941

Sydney Arthur Wilson died on 1/9/1971, aged 69, and he too was cremated at Centennial Park. Tessa May Wilson died on 30/5/1997, aged  85, and was cremated at Centennial Park.

Rupert Eva Wilson married Helen McClintock in 1905; they had children named George William (b. 1907), Jean Eva (b. 1908), Norma Rae (b. 1910), Hector Rupert (b. 1912), Joan Ailsa (b. 1914) and Kenneth John (b. 1919). Rupert died on 11/9/1955, aged 68, and is buried in the Willaston Cemetery, although he lived at Blanchetown. Helen died on 25/9/1971, aged 87, and is buried alongside Rupert.

Rupert and Helen grave
See (photos by Beth Page)

A newspaper report reveals that Rupert Eva Wilson was at some time the proprietor of a motor garage, but the business failed, leaving him with debts of some £800 that he could not pay.

The Advertiser 14/7/1939

Jean Eva Wilson, eldest daughter of Rupert and Helen, died in Adelaide on 18/8/1927, aged 18. She is buried at Williamstown.

The next daughter, Norma Rae Wilson, married Gordon Gilbert Phillips in the Mitchell Memorial Church, Goodwood, on 8/9/1934. He was born in 1910, the son of Sidney Phillips and Edith Alice Downer. Norma died on 7/4/1996, aged 85; she is buried at Smithfield Memorial Park. Gordon died on 8/11/2002, aged 92.

Joan Ailsa Wilson, youngest daughter of Rupert and Helen, married Alva Edward Parham on 27/12/1937 at the Goodwood Presbyterian Church. Alva served with the R.A.A.F. from 1941 to 1946, attaining the rank of Sergeant, and everything I know about him is contained in his service record, which is viewable online. He was born at Gawler on 28/2/1913, his parents being Edward John Gawler Parham and Ellen Jane Preiss. He had obtained his Qualifying Certificate (indicating completion of primary school). His address at enlistment was 2 Thomas Tce, Gawler, and he was the Manager of the Men's Clothing Department of H. B. Crosby's store, Essex House, Gawler, where he had worked for 15 years. So presumably he joined the staff of the store straight after leaving primary school. His boss, P. Andrewartha, wrote "We can highly recommend him for a position of trust and responsibility, as he is very honest, reliable, willing and an outstanding stock-keeper and salesman. He is also a very capable buyer of Men's Clothing, which he has bought for the above firm for a considerable number of years." Alva did have to admit to one conviction by the Civil Power: he had been fined £2 for Having Liquor on Public Grounds after hours. His height was 5 feet 8 inches, weight 126 lb, chest measurement 32–34½ inches, his hair and complexion were dark, his eyes brown, and his religious denomination Methodist. His role in the R.A.A.F. was Equipment Assistant, and he saw Operational Service in Darwin from 4/10/1942 to 2/7/1943 (well after the Japanese air raid of February 1942).

As well as giving his marriage details (as above), Alva's service record reveals that he had a daughter named Jean who was born on 12/1/1943. A newspaper notice from 1946 reveals that Alva and Joan also had a daughter named Judith Helen, born on 12/7/1946. Alva died in 1997, but I have not found a burial or cremation record. Joan Ailsa Parham died on 13/9/2002, aged 88; there is a cremation memorial at Enfield Memorial Park.

I have not found any evidence that Rupert and Helen's eldest son, George William Wilson, ever married. South Australian death records reveal that George William Wilson, brother-in-law of A. E. Parham, died in 1961.

Hector Rupert Wilson married Evelyn Rolton, although I do not know when or where the marriage took place. Evelyn was born in 1919, the daughter of Bertram Lambro Rolton and Maude Christina McKay. The National Archives has Hector's service record, but it has not been digitized. However, the Archives do provide the information that Hector was born at Williamstown on 23/4/1912 and enlisted at Mt Pleasant, and his next of kin was Evelyn Wilson. Hector died at age 62, and is buried at Waikerie. Evelyn died at age 88, and is buried at Waikerie alongside Hector. Her last residence was located at the corner of Meade and Ackland Streets, Blanchetown.

Kenneth John Wilson, youngest son of Rupert and Helen, married Alice Myrtle Kappler. Again I do not know when or where the marriage took place. Myrtle was born in 1914, the daughter of Friedrich Wilhelm Kappler and Louisa Hulda Zeunert. She died in 1981, aged 67, and was buried at Waikerie on 13/10/1981. Kenneth died on 15/4/1987, also at the age of 67, and was cremated; his last place of residence was Blanchetown. On 23/3/2002 his ashes were interred at Waikerie, alongside his wife's remains.

Jean death
The Register 19/8/1927
Parham birth
The Advertiser 14/1/1943
Hec and Ev
The Advertiser 19/11/1952
Norma marriage
The Advertiser 6/9/1934
Judith Parham
The Advertiser 13/7/1946
Friedrich Kappler
The Advertiser 9/6/1943

George Gerald Wilson married Jessie Catherine Gower in 1910. Jessie was the youngest child of James Gower and Hannah Savery, who were married in 1859 and had eleven children that I know of, the first born in 1860 and the last in 1888. George Gerald and Jessie Catherine had children named Allan Maxwell (1911), Murray Vincent (1913) and Verna Merle (1917). George Gerald Wilson died on 13/10/1969, at age 84, and is buried at Whyalla; Jessie Catherine Wilson died on 17/8/1964, at age 76, and is buried alongside George.

Allan Maxwell Wilson and Murray Vincent Wilson are both buried at Whyalla. Allan's burial record says that he died on 21/12/1978, aged 67, and was buried on 26/12/1978; Murray's burial record says that he died on 2/11/1985, aged 72, and was buried on 7/11/1985. According to Genealogy SA's index of newspaper death notices, Allan was known as Butch and Murray as Mort. I know nothing further about them.

Verna Merle Wilson married Murray Edwards at St John's Church, Halifax Street, Adelaide, on 6/9/1941. His full name was actually Frank Murray Edwards; he was born at Ardrossan on 14/3/1917, the son of Frank Edwards and Hilda Emily Wilson. I have not discovered death or burial information for Murray, but I think that his marriage to Verna ended in divorce. She is surely the Verna Merle Martin who died on 6/6/1997, aged 80, and is buried at Centennial Park, along with a Graham Murray Edwards who died at age 24 and was buried on 21/12/1966.

1st engagement
The Advertiser 11/6/1938
2nd engagement
The Advertiser 24/6/1941
The Advertiser 28/8/1941

George Wilson (senior) died at age 74 and was buried on 29/9/1933 in the Williamstown Public Cemetery. Eva Jane Amelia Wilson died at age 79 and was buried on 1/3/1941 alongside George.

George death
The Advertiser 29/9/1933

— Alice A. Johnson —

The Mrs A. Johnson mentioned in Thomas Worden's obituary was Alice Anna Worden. Alice married Robert Johnson, whose father was named William Johnson, at St George Church, Gawler, on 1/10/1884. The bride was 21 and the groom 23. The fact that the obituary refers to Alice as Mrs A. Johnson rather than Mrs R. Johnson leads me to think that by that time (1921) Robert Johnson was deceased: none of the other women mentioned in the obituary are given their own initial in preference to their husband's, and whereas the other husbands were all still alive in 1921, I have no evidence that Robert Johnson was.

There is a discussion on RootsChat.Com that is concerned with Robert Johnson's parents and siblings. Apparently an Old Testament that was owned by one Thomas Johnson has the following list of birth dates written in it:

The upshot of the discussion is that William Johnson, the father of these children, was probably Swedish, and Johnson is an anglicization of his surname. William has been identified with the Wilhelm Ferdinand Ludwig Jansen whose name is included in a passenger list for the ship Wandrahm, which sailed from Hamburg on 23/4/1854 and arrived at Port Adelaide on 8/8/1854. According to the RootsChat discussion, this William Johnson married Margaret Conway on 8/4/1855 in the Catholic Church, West Terrace, Adelaide. (However, Barry Leadbeater's online database of Historical South Australian Marriages 1836 to 1856 shows that the marriage date was April 5th 1856.)

A Mary Jane Gonsen, daughter of Wilhelm Gonsen and Margaret Kornway, was born in 1856 (and apparently also died in 1856), and a Ludwig Wilhelm Ferdinand Ganzen, son of William Ganzen and Margaret Cornwine, was born in 1858. But I have not been able to find birth records matching the other children listed above.

William F. L. Johnson, of Sandy Creek, was buried at Willaston on 11/4/1887. He was 68 years old. Margaret Johnson was buried at Williamstown on 9/4/1919. She was 82 years old.

I know of the following children of Robert and Alice Johnson: Gertrude Muriel Johnson (born at Yatta Creek on 17/7/1885), Charles Johnson (born near Williamstown on 6/7/1887), Vera Ann Eva Johnson (born at Williamstown on 12/7/1889), Alick Johnson (born at Williamstown on 13/9/1892), Irene Adelia Johnson (born at Williamstown on 19/6/1894), Robert Johnson (born at Williamstown on 10/4/1896), Auriol Ruby Johnson (born at Williamstown on 7/7/1898), Francis Laurence Johnson (born at Willaston on 14/1/1902) and James Henry Johnson (born at Rose Park on 16/4/1905).

South Australian marriage records exist for five of the children of Alice and Robert. Gertrude Muriel Johnson (23) married Arthur Samuel Hissey (25, son of Henry Hissey) on 11/12/1908 at the Gumeracha Registry Office; Vera Ann Eva Johnson (22) married Stanley Palmerston Pellew (28, son of William James Pellew) on 20/2/1912 at St Peters Church Williamstown; Auriol Ruby Johnson (25) married Barton Steer (23, son of George Steer) on 7/5/1924 at St Pauls Church Adelaide; Robert Johnson (aged 24) married Mary Pizzo (25, daughter of Dominick Pizzo) at St Josephs Presbytery, Kooringa, on 13/2/1923; Francis Laurence Johnson (aged 24) married Dorcas Eva Higgs (26, daughter of William Higgs) on 4/11/1922 at Methodist Manse Henley Beach. Francis overstated his age: he was only 20 on 4/11/1922.

Irene Adelia Johnson died at Williamstown on 7/6/1897, aged three.

The Advertiser 14/6/1929

Francis Laurence Johnson died on 14/1/1981—his birthday—aged 79; he is buried at Centennial Park. Dorcas Eva Johnson died on 26/11/1976, aged 82, and is buried in the same location as Francis. Francis and Dorcas had daughters named Marjorie Clair (b. 1923), Enid Alice (b. 1924) and Helen Mavis (b. 1928).

I do not really know for certain whether the Robert Johnson who married Mary Pizzo was my Robert Johnson, because it is not inconceivable that there was another similarly aged Robert Johnson son of Robert Johnson in existence. But the ages do match up correctly, and the Pizzo's did have some connection with Williamstown, in that in 1922 Mary's sister Eileen Josephine Pizzo was engaged to Leslie Ernest Messner of Williamstown. It is a pity that apparently Mary and Robert did not see fit to announce their union via a newspaper notice.

The Register 22/11/1922

Robert and Mary had at least two children: Laurence Brian (b. 1923) and Donald James (b. 1925).

Stanley and Vera Pellew had three daughters: Lorna (born 1913, died 1914), Olive Adelaide (born 1915, died 1986) and Vera Mavis (born 1918).

According to a "Guy Family Tree" on, Vera Mavis Pellew married Geoffrey Horace Grigg (1914–1983) and had a daughter named Gloria Margaret Grigg (1939–2008). I have been unable to find the marriage details, but Geoffrey Horace Grigg died on 30/9/1983, aged 69, and is buried in the Williamstown Cemetery, while Vera Mavis Grigg died on 23/10/1961, aged 43, also buried in the Williamstown Cemetery.

Olive Adelaide Pellew married Jack Charlton Guy at Bordertown on 7/3/1939.

The Advertiser 24/3/1939

It is surely no coincidence that Adelaide Pellew's aunt Auriol Steer also lived in the Bordertown area, although it is not clear how this link between our Williamstown Johnsons and South Australia's south-east originally arose.

According to their gravestones, Barton Steer died on 17/11/1960, aged 59, and Auriol Ruby Barton-Steer died on 18/8/1982, aged 84. Her last place of residence was Bordertown. Both Barton Steer and Auriol are buried in the Mundulla Cemetery, and photographs of the gravestones can be viewed online. It is curious that Auriol's gravestone appears to say that her surname was Barton-Steer rather than Steer; it seems that someone made a strange error. Genealogy SA's database of newspaper death notices has her surname as Steer.

Barton grave Auriol grave
The Advertiser 7/5/1949
The Advertiser 4/4/1950
The Advertiser 14/1/1953

Alice Anna Johnson died at age 82 and was buried on 5/1/1946 in the Williamstown Cemetery. The stone on her grave also commemorates her daughters Ivy, Gertrude and Vera, indicating that they predeceased their mother. In fact Gertrude Muriel Hissey died on 7/6/1915 and Vera Ann Eva Pellew died on 18/7/1918. It is my guess is that "Ivy" on the gravestone refers to Irene; perhaps she was known as Ivy, or perhaps whoever ordered the stone misremembered the name of the little girl who had died fifty years earlier.

Gertie death
The Advertiser 8/6/1916
Return thanks
The Chronicle 3/8/1918
Vera death
Vera funeral
The Advertiser 19/7/1918
Alice's grave

Since the newspaper items shown above refer to Mrs Johnson and not Mr Johnson, I think that Robert Johnson must have died sometime between 1905 and 1916.

The alleged date of Alice's burial, namely (Saturday) 5/1/1946, was also the date of her death, if we are to believe a newspaper death notice published in The Mail of same date. Someone was remarkably efficient! An In Memoriam notice from a year later incorrectly gave the date as 5/1/1945, evidently the result of a misprint.

Alice death
The Mail 5/1/1946
In Memoriam
The Advertiser 4/1/1947

The death notice revealed that my earlier information concerning Alice's progeny was deficient: it lists seven children, three of whom I did not previously know about.

It looks as though the death notice lists Alice's children in order from oldest to youngest, but with males before females. It would be possible for the "new" son Ralph to fit in between Vera and Alick; however, a 76 year old Ralph Richard Johnson was buried at Williamstown on 10/8/1963, and this raises the possibility that the Charles born in 1887 came to be called Ralph. If Charles were still alive on 5/1/1946, then his name should have been listed in the death notice along with the names of his siblings; on the other hand, if he were dead then his name should have been included on his mother's gravestone along with the names of his deceased sisters. The same reasoning raises the possibility that James Henry (born 1905) came to be called Walter. I assume that the youngest daughter, Zealia, was born after James; if Walter were also born after James then Alice (born 1863) was quite old when her last child was born.

Sure enough, a Walter James Henry Johnson (24, son of Robert Johnson) married Amelia Pearl Ruby Hinge (18, daughter of Francis Hinge) at the Mundulla Methodist Church on 12/10/1929. And Ralph Charles Johnson (33, son of Robert Johnson) married Mabel Veronica Rita Waye (25, daughter of Edward Gordon Waye) at the C of E Rectory Willunga on 31/10/1923. Although our Charles would have been 36 rather than 33 on this date, we have definitely got the right person, since Mabel Veronica Rita Johnson, who died on 6/4/1978 at the age of 83, is buried in the Williamstown Cemetery in Grave 6 of the WesternQ section, right next to Ralph Richard Johnson, who is in Grave 5.

Pearl Hinge, who married Walter J. H. Johnson, was probably a first cousin of Barton Steer (who married Walter's sister Auriol). Barton Steer's mother was Alice Hinge, who I think was a sister of Pearl's father Francis. Walter James Henry Johnson died on 26/11/1980, aged 75, and is buried at Penola. Amelia Ruby Pearl Johnson died on 10/9/1991, aged 80, and is also buried at Penola. So this is a third link with the south-east.

Zealia Maude Johnson (27, daughter of Robert Johnson) married Bertram Donaldson (37, son of William Donaldson) on 16/4/1927, at Christ Church, North Adelaide.

The birth of a Burtram Donaldson, son of William Donaldson and Maria Tonkin Donaldson (née Tapper), was registered in Fremantle in February 1891, and a Bertram Donaldson married Nellie Pollitt in Subiaco in 1912. This couple had two children: Bertram Francis Donaldson, born in the Norwood District of South Australia in 1913, and Eileen May Donaldson, born in the Adelaide District in 1915. Nellie divorced Bertram in 1922, after she caught him "misconducting himself" with another woman.

The Advertiser 13/12/1922

On 4/12/1914 Bertram Donaldson attempted to enlist in the A.I.F., but was rejected as unfit, due to poor eyesight. See the digital copy of item with barcode 3513066 at the National Archives of Australia, noting that "unfit eyesight" is written in the top margin of page 1. We also learn from page 1 that Bertram was a cabinet-maker, he was born in Fremantle, his age on 4/12/1914 was 23 years and 9 months, and his next of kin was his wife, Nellie Donaldson, whose address was Taylor Street, off Tynte Street, North Adelaide. The only other page of the document that has information entered is page 5; this has the medical examiner's report, consisting of nothing but the result of the eyesight test.

visual acuity

A Nellie Donaldson married an Arthur Henry Whannell in the Adelaide District in 1933, and a 41 year old Nellie Whannell died on 3/4/1933 and was buried in the West Terrace Cemetery. Bertram Donaldson, son of William and Maria Tonkin Donaldson, died in Queensland in 1960. But I have found no further information concerning his wife Zealia.

A descendant of one of Bertram Donaldson's brothers sent me the two pictures of Bertram shown below. The first shows him in the uniform of the Citizen Military Militia. The second must surely have been taken shortly before his move from Western Australia to South Australia.

militia uniform Bertram

Robert Johnson (the younger) enlisted in the AIF on 15/8/1917. His service record shows that at the time of his enlistment he was single and was a Blacksmith's Improver. He embarked for England on 17/10/1917 and served in France in 1918 and 1919. He returned to Australia on 22/2/1920, and died in 1954.

page number .

Alick Johnson enlisted in the AIF on 2/11/1916. His service record shows that at the time of his enlistment he was single and a Bullock Driver. He embarked for England on 24/1/1917 and was sent to France on 24/9/1917. He was wounded (gassed) in Belgium on 30/10/1917 and returned to England. He went absent without leave in London from 8/2/1818 to 14/3/1818, and was sentenced (on 17/4/1918) to 90 days detention and forfeiture of pay for the 158 days from 8/2/1918 to the end of his detention. The unserved balance of his detention (namely, 40 days) was remitted when he was sent back to France on 5/6/1918. He was he was back in England on 14/2/1919, because he was married in the Register Office, Kensington, on that day. He was returned to Australia, with his wife, on 5/8/1919.

page number .

The certificate of Alick's marriage to Ethel Freeman is included with his military record. It shows that she was 21 years old and the daughter of John Freeman, a deceased compositor. Her address prior to marriage was 26 Cromwell Road, South Kensington.

In fact Ethel was only 18 when she married Alick. Her decision to marry him was rash, and she came to regret it. It seems that he led her to believe that his father was a rich sawmill owner, and in consequence she was severely disillusioned when she discovered the truth. It did not take her very long to realize that she would be better off without Alick.

bigamy_1 bigamy_2
The Register 16/4/1924         Click to display text

Ethel legally married Franklin Roy Dawkins in 1932. She died on 19/7/1979, aged 78, and was cremated at Centennial Park. Franklin Roy Dawkins died on 23/8/1955; he is buried in the West Terrace Cemetery.

FreeBMD lists only one Ethel Maud Freeman born in the first quarter of 1901. I have obtained her birth certificate. She was indeed born on 15/2/1901, as she told Detective Harrell, though not in Bedford (Surrey)—which seems to be a self-contradictory assertion—but in Dunstable, County of Bedford. Furthermore, her father's name was not John Freeman: in fact, her father's name is not recorded. Her mother was Emily Freeman, a Straw Hat Machinist, whose address when the birth was registered (on 27/3/1901) was Edward Street, Dunstable. The precise place of Ethel's birth was stated to be Hallifax (sic) Yard, West Street, Dunstable.

Ethel birth cert

I have not been successful in my attempts to find Ethel or her mother in 1901 or 1911 census records, but I have found her mother in an 1891 census record. Emily Freeman, aged 21, Straw Hat Maker, was living at 21 Union Street, Dunstable, in the household of her father, a 50 year old Blacksmith named George Freeman. The others in the household were George Freeman's wife Sarah (aged 50) and another daughter, Clara (aged 23), who was also a Straw Hat Maker. Unfortunately, it seems that the household continues on the next page, the image of which I have not purchased, but the 1881 and 1901 census records for George Freeman's household show that Clara and Emily had younger siblings named Sarah, Alice, Frederick, Florence, Ralph and Harry, as well as older sisters named Lizzie and Annie.

A marriage between George Frederick Freeman and Sarah Cook was registered in the Luton District in 1862. The 1881 census record for George F. Freeman's household (as transcribed for gives George's age as 40 and his birthplace as Ridgmount, and gives his wife's name as Sarah, age 40, birthplace Houghton Regis. There were eight children in the family: Lizzie Freeman (17), Annie V. Freeman (15), Clara Freeman (13), Emily Freeman (11), Sarah Freeman (8), Alice Freeman (6), Fredk Wm Freeman (4), Florence M. Freeman (2) and Ralph G. Freeman (0). This is surely the right family, although George was not a Blacksmith in 1881 but an Agricultural Engineer (Mach Wkr). The 1901 census has George F. Freeman as a 60 year old Mechanical Engineer living at 10 Winfield Street Dunstable, with his wife Sarah (60), widowed daughter Lizzie Hobbs (37, no occupation given), daughter Annie Freeman (single, 35, Straw Hat Machinist), son Frederick W. Freeman (single, 24, Printing Machine Minder), daughter Florence M. Freeman (single, 22, Book Binder), son Ralph G. Freeman (single, 20, Mechanical Engineer), son Harry Freeman (single, 18, Assistant Bookbinder) and grand-daughter Lilian B. Freeman (single, 14, Book Sewer Binder). The 1911 census has Sarah Freeman as a 70 year old widow living with her daughters Annie V. Freeman and Lizzie Hobbs, and grand-daughter Lilian Bertha Hobbs.

Alick Johnson died at age 61 and was buried on 2/6/1954 at Williamstown. By this time Alick had a wife named Sophia, whose maiden name I do not know. She died on 10/7/1967, aged 72, and is buried in the Cheltenham Cemetery.

Alick death
The Advertiser 2/6/1954

Unidentified people

I am hoping that, just maybe, someone out there in internet land might recognize the people in this photo and tell me who they are:


A first guess was that they are the Johnsons, but unfortunately the ages of the children do not appear to be right (unless for this occasion they had traded the three year old Alick for a similarly aged little girl). The second cousin who sent me the photo above also sent me the photo below, on the back of which was written "Grandma's sister Alice?". (Here "Grandma" refers to Edith Adeline Buckley, née Worden, to be discussed below.)

Grandma's sister Alice?

I agree that the women in the two photos do perhaps bear a resemblance to one another.

Coincidentally, another relative sent me a photo of an unidentified couple, suggesting that the woman in it looked a lot like Ambrosine Adelia Worden. It was clearly taken in the same studio as the photo above, since the same distinctive chair appears in both. Perhaps the two photos were taken on the same occasion.

The distinctive chair must have been part of the furniture in the studio that P. J. Marchant opened in Gawler in 1895, since a "MARCHANT, Ebenezer Tasman" web page has a picture of Ebb Marchant (born 1887), as a young man, standing next to the same chair.

Mystery couple
Unidentified couple
Phil, Amy and daughter Eva
Ambrosine Adelia Worden with husband Phil Howlett and daughter Eva

The unidentified woman's resemblance to Ambrosine Adelia is clear, and they both resemble the possible Alice, but the unidentified man is surely not Ambrosine Adelia's husband. So my guess is that the unidentified woman is another of the (many) sisters.

Alice Anna was 15 years older than her sister Ambrosine Adelia. I conjecture that the woman in unidentified couple photo is one of the sisters in between Alice and Ambrosine.

I now think that the unidentified couple must be James William Gower and Elizabeth Cordelia Blanche Worden. It was a Gower descendant who sent me the photo originally, and I think the man does bear some resemblance to Walter James Gower, son of James and Elizabeth. (See below for a photo of Walter James.) Moreover, I think that the man looks at least ten years older than the woman, and Elizabeth was the only one of the Worden girls to marry a man that much older than herself. And other photos appearing on this page indicate that the man is not George Wilson, Thomas Kennewell or John Stuart Hammat.

A granddaughter of James William and Elizabeth has now confirmed that the couple do indeed look like her grandparents (though at a much younger age than ever she knew them). So they are no longer unidentified!

Accepting (reluctantly) that the unknown people in the the photo at the top of this box are not Johnsons, I have no idea who they are. Since I received it from a Buckley descendant, it is quite possible that they are related to the Buckleys and not to me. Currently, that is my best guess.

— Richard W. Worden —

Richard Warwick Worden, son of Thomas Worden, married Emma Ellen Gower, daughter of James Gower, on 3/4/1889, at Lyndoch Church. The bride's age was given as 25 and groom's as 24, although in fact he would have only been 23.

This was the first of three marriages linking the Wordens and the Gowers. The next came in 1891, when James William Gower, elder brother of Emma Ellen, married Elizabeth Cordelia Blanche Worden, sister of Richard Warwick Worden. The third came in 1910, when Jessie Catherine Gower, the much younger sister of James William and Emma Ellen, married George Gerald Wilson. George Gerald was the son of Eva Jane Amelia Worden, elder sister of Richard Warwick and Elizabeth Cordelia Blanche.

No doubt Albert Gower, whose wife appears in the church bazaar photograph mentioned above, was also related to these Gowers in some way.

Richard Warwick and Emma Ellen had one son, also named Richard Warwick Worden, who was born at Williamstown on 18/8/1889. Richard Warrick Worden the father died at Williamstown on 4/3/1890, aged 24. By 1902 his widow Emma Ellen had become the de facto wife of Percy Augustus Kennewell, who had a previous wife who was still alive.

Richard Warwick Worden the son enlisted in the AIF on 14/1/1915. At his enlistment Richard Worden gave his age as 25 years and 5 months and his birthplace as Williamstown (both in agreement with the birth registration record). He gave his occupation as drover, and as next of kin he named his mother, Mrs P. A. Kenenwell (sic), of Wolfram Street North Broken Hill.

The Advertiser 1/6/1908

Richard Worden's service record shows that he served at Gallipoli in October, November and December of 1915. He was in Egypt for most of the rest of the war. The Broken Hill newspaper The Barrier Miner published soldiers' letters home, including one from Corporal R. W. Worden to his mother, which appeared in the issue of 20/8/1916:

Just a line to let you know I am well and doing all right. I feel better than I have been for a long while.

There is not much news to write about here. The weather is hot and dusty sometimes, so you see it is like home in the summer. I could nearly start a shop with all the socks and things sent to me since I left Australia. I went out to the catacombs last Saturday, and had a look at the Kom-el-Shougafa Necropolis (the hill of the Potsherd). The tombs are very old, dating back to the second century, and are dug out of solid rock. You go down a winding stairway with a central shaft to a sort of room, the roof of which is supported by seven pillars of solid rock. There are several tombs where you can see the bones of the kings and queens who are buried, also the kings' horses. There are also some statues of different kings and queens. It is a very interesting place to visit, and I am going there again if I get a chance. On the way out you pass a large column known as Pompey's Pillar (which is supposed to be the burial place of the famous Roman General Pompey, who was vanquished by Julius Caesar). It is 88ft. high, and about 9ft. in diameter at the bottom. There are some very pretty scenes here. One of the prettiest is on tho Mahmoudia Canal, which is used for boat traffic from all parts of Egypt, and is also the main water supply of the town. I went for a ride on the tram yesterday, right round the town, and it was some ride. Takes about an hour to do it. It would open your eyes to see the fine old buildings, but the dirt is something awful, and nearly makes one sick. If you are making anything I would, rather you sent it to the boys in the trenches than to me, as I can get anything I want while I am here. I will close now with love to all home.

Kind regards to all my friends.

page number .

Richard contracted malaria in 1917. He returned to Australia in August 1919, and lived in Broken Hill, where in 1920 he married Clara Bray. Richard died in Broken Hill in 1973; the NSW death record has his full name as Richard Warwick Worden and has the given names of his father and mother as Warwick Richard and Emma Ellen. Richard's wife Clara died in Broken Hill in 1970.

Richard and Clara had three children. Their eldest son, Frederick Warwick Worden, served in WWII. He was 18 years old when he enlisted, but gave 13/3/1919 as his date of birth, pretending to be 20. I suppose that his actual date of birth was 13/3/1921. He died from wounds at Tobruk on 21/6/1941.

The Barrier Miner 28/6/1941
The Barrier Miner 20/6/1942
The Barrier Miner 21/6/1945

Frederick Warwick Worden was evidently known by his second name, Warwick. In The Barrier Miner's "Church Men and Matters" article of 12/12/1936 there is a reference to W. Worden as one of two district court representatives for the Nicholls Street Methodists. So it appears that Richard Warwick Worden was also known as Warwick, as the 15 year old F. W. Worden would surely not have been considered old enough for such a role. Nevertheless, in R. W. Worden's 1915 enlistment application his name is given simply as Richard Worden, and he signed "R. Worden". I shall continue to refer to him as Richard.

Milk float
The Barrier Miner 11/7/1939

The other two children of Richard and Clara were named Ross and Patricia Dawn. I do not know their birth dates. Ross was married on 16/8/1947 to Fay Giles and Pat was married on 5/7/1949 to Owen Fletcher Dowling. Ross and Fay had a daughter named Ruth who was born on 2/11/1948 and a daughter named Margaret who was born on 6/4/1954.

Ross Worden engagement
The Barrier Miner 20/1/1947
Daughter 1
The Advertiser 15/11/1948
Ross Fay Marriage
The Advertiser 11/8/1947
Daughter 2
The Barrier Miner 1/5/1954
Lost ring
The Barrier Miner 30/4/1952
The Barrier Miner 11/7/1949

Percy A. Kennewell, de facto husband of Richard's mother Emma Ellen, had married Amelia Alice Morris on 26/9/1891, and they had a son (Thomas) who was born in 1892. Amelia Alice Kennewell also gave birth to daughters Jane, Lucy and Margaret, in 1895, 1897 and 1899 respectively, but in each case the birth record does not give the father's name. Amelia Alice Kennewell died in 1957. Percy and Emma Ellen had children named Dorothy, Edwin Percy (b. 10/2/1902), Marjorie and Jessie. Percy A. Kennewell died in Broken Hill in 1931, Emma Ellen Kennewell died in Victoria in 1947.

Percy death
Barrier Miner 30/12/1931

— Ernest J. Worden —

Ernest Joseph Worden died on 21/8/1951, at age 84, and was buried at Williamstown on 24/8/1951. He is buried alongside his wife, Edith Charlotte Worden, who died on 13/9/1941, at age 68, and was buried at Williamstown on 15/9/1941. Ernest and Edith had married in St Peter's Church, Williamstown, on 13/12/1906; the list of marriages from which I obtained this information gives the bride's name as Edie Charlotte Rice.

A defunct web site called Rice Family History (formerly at had some information about Edith Charlotte and her Rice relatives, and gave her name as Charlotte Edith Rice rather than Edith Charlotte Rice. It also gave her birth date as 12/12/1872. This information is corroborated by a RootsWeb WorldConnect Project website called "The ROADS Family of Buckinghamshire, and One-Place-Studies of Waddesdon, Grendon Underwood and Wotton Underwood", which has further information about her ancestors. The Charlotte Edith Rice page of this site also tells us that she was born at Sandy Creek S.A. (which is about 10 kilometres from Williamstown, roughly halfway between Gawler and Lyndoch).

(The Wayback Machine has archived copies of parts of the Rice Family History site.)

Edith death
Advertiser 15/9/1941
Edith Funeral
Advertiser 15/9/1941

My eldest brother remembers our father saying that he (our father) had an uncle who used to prospect for gold "up around Warren Reservoir". Since Warren Reservoir is near Williamstown—about seven kilometres southeast—I think it likely that this uncle was a Worden. It was probably Ernest Joseph.

I had always believed that Ernest Joseph and Edith Charlotte did not have any children. However, a newspaper notice of Ernest Joseph's death reveals that in fact they had a son named Wilton. He was probably born in about 1921, since he gained his Qualifying Certificate in 1934. (I believe that the Qualifying Certificate qualified children to attend high school, and was typically gained at age 12 or 13.)

I suspect that Wilton was actually an adopted son. It seems that South Australian birth records do not include any Wilton Worden, and Edith Charlotte would have been 48 or 49 at the time of Wilton's birth.

Ernest death
The Advertiser 24/8/1951
Qual cert
The Advertiser 27/12/1934

In 1937 there is a reference in The Advertiser to an amateur cyclist from Williamstown named W. Worden. Unless some other unrelated Wordens had moved to Williamstown, this can only be Wilton.

Worden cyclist
The Advertiser 22/1/1937

I found a few other references to the cyclist W. Worden, who seems to have been rather successful as a professional. As a keen cyclist myself, I would like to claim him as my relative!

Narrow winner
The Advertiser 20/2/1939
Port Pirie
The Advertiser 10/1/1947
B Worden
The Advertiser 9/2/1948
Super Elliotts
The Mail 26/2/1944

I suppose that if you are named Wilton then you might end up being called Bill, if only because people think you are a William. Nevertheless, it seems that Wilton preferred to be called "Tony": the Genealogy SA database of newspaper death notices shows that Wilton (Tony) Worden died in 1993. Whether or not Tony Worden and Bill Worden of Super Elliotts are the same person is not quite clear.

I found one other mention of W. Worden of Williamstown in The Advertiser: in 1952 there was a grass fire on his property, close to his house.

The Advertiser 15/1/1952

Wilton Hartley Worden was buried at Whyalla on 21/7/1993, having died three days earlier. His age is given as 71, indicating that he was born in 1921 or 1922.

— Edith A. Buckley —

The Mrs J. Buckley mentioned in Thomas' obituary was Edith Adeline Worden, who married Franz James Buckley (also called James Frank Buckley) on 12/5/1891 at St Peter's Church Williamstown. The bride was 22 and the groom 28. They had the following children: Rosa Dora Ellice Buckley (b. 1/3/1892, Williamstown), Reuben Murray Buckley (b. 19/6/1893, Teal Flat, Hundred of Ridley), Annie Laura Buckley (b. 18/6/1895, Royals Hill, Hundred of Ridley), Frank Charles Buckley (b. 30/11/1896, Hundred of Ridley), Mabel Bernice Irene Buckley (b. 27/5/1898, Hundred of Ridley), Eva Beatrice Buckley (b. 26/10/1899, Hundred of Ridley), Laura Adeline Victoria Buckley (b. 19/1/1901, Mannum), Laurence James Buckley (b. 2/1/1904, Fairview, near Mannum), Gwendoline Zelma Blanche Buckley (b. 16/2/1906, Hundred of Ridley), Robert Norman Buckley (b. 12/8/1907, Mannum), Terence Lionel Keith Buckley (b. 22/2/1909, Mannum) and Amy May Buckley (b. 22/6/1911, Mannum).

James Frank and Edith Adeline lived on a farm called "Daisy Dell", 12 miles north of Mannum.

Laura Adeline Victoria Buckley was buried at Mannum on 1/5/1902; she would have been 15 months old. Mabel Bernice Irene Buckley died on 12/12/1898 at Pellaring Flat, aged 6 months, and was buried at Mannum on 15/12/1898. The other ten children listed above all survived into adulthood, and were still alive at the time of their mother's death in 1952.

Rosa Dora Ellice Buckley married Roy Ivon Bowhill Whitfield in the Talunga District in 1916. I know of three children: Rita Irene (9/9/1917), Sylvia Faye (1921) and Ivon James (1925). Rose was buried at Mannum on 27/8/1972; Roy was buried at Mannum on 23/10/1976.

The Advertiser 15/9/1917

Amy May Buckley married Harold Welbourn King in Adelaide on 9/4/1938.

approaching marriage
The Advertiser 2/4/1938
birth notice
The Advertiser 3/2/1941

I found a newspaper announcement of the engagement of Annie Laura Buckley to Clarence W. Searle, son of Thomas Searle of Torrensville (formerly of Claypans). However, it may be that this engagement was cancelled: I was unable to find a corresponding marriage notice, and Clarence Wilfred Searle married Dulcie May Wadrop in 1934.

Annie engaged
The Advertiser 18/3/1925

Gwendoline Zelma Blanche Buckley married a Mr Hynes, but I do not know when. She died on 30/3/1989, and was cremated at Centennial Park on 3/4/1989. Her last place of residence was in Mitchell Park.

Eva Beatrice Buckley (21) married Lionel Stanley Roy McLaren (24, son of John McLaren) on 9/7/1921 at the Methodist Parsonage Torrensville. I know of three children: Iris Joan (1922), John James (1924) and William Stanley (1927). Lionel died on 25/7/1949 and Eva died 3/2/1983; they are both buried in the Celtenham Cemetery, and the burial records include the information that they lived in West Croydon.

Eva and Lionel Phil and Nell

The two photos shown above were clearly taken in the same place, and presumably on the same occasion (although the chairs are different). The people in the photo on the left are Eva and Lionel McLaren, while those in the other photo are Philip John Howlett and his sister Ellen. The family connection is that Philip Howlett's wife and Eva McLaren's mother were sisters, daughters of Thomas and Ann Worden. So I assume that the occasion was a Worden family event. Perhaps it was Thomas Worden's funeral, in August 1921; at this time Eva and Lionel had been married for one month, and were aged 21 and 24, while Philip and Ellen were 47 and 44 respectively.

I know marriage details for four of the five sons of James Frank and Edith Adeline: Reuben Murray Buckley (25) married Lilian Myrtle Nancarrow (31, daughter of Alfred Nancarrow) on 25/2/1920 at the Baptist Church Coobowie; Robert Norman Buckley married Jean Emily Short (daughter of G. J. Short) at Curramulka in July 1939; Terence Lionel Keith Buckley married Elinor Mary Cook (daughter of W. D. Cook) at Minlaton on 31/3/1940; Frank Buckley married Kathleen Brophy at Parkside on 7/4/1945. I suppose that the other son, Laurence, did not marry.

The Advertiser 6/7/1939
The Advertiser 22/1/1943
Pat marriage
The Advertiser 4/4/1941
Frank marriage
The Advertiser 4/4/1945

The "Recent Weddings" column of The Advertiser of 10/7/1940 has the information that Ivy Doreen Buckley, youngest daughter of Mrs and the late Mr J. F. Buckley of Mannum, married Len Aldenhoven (son of Edmund Julius Aldenhoven and Martha Page) at Berri on 12/6/1940. Ivy Aldenhoven died on 30/7/2007, aged 89, and is buried at Centennial Park. Leonard Mervyn Aldenhoven died on 15/7/1983, aged 71, and was cremated at Centennial Park on 19/7/1983.

Ivy marriage
The Advertiser 10/7/1940

Pat Whitfield, the niece of Ivy Doreen Buckley mentioned in the wedding report, must have been a daughter of Ivy's sister Rosa.

I have seen lists of the children of James Frank and Edith Adeline in a few different places, and, strangely, none of them include Ivy. Note that Ivy was some seven years younger than Amy May, her youngest sibling.

Reuben Murray Buckley enlisted in the AIF on 21/1/1916. His service record shows that at the time of his enlistment he was aged 22 years and 6 months, was single and a farmer. His next of kin is named as his mother, Edith Adelaide Buckley, Mannum, South Australia. He was posted to Egypt in August 1916. On 3/12/1917 he was wounded in action, sustaining a gun shot wound to the thigh. He returned to Australia in August 1919, and was discharged on 25/9/1919.

page number .
RM Buckley
The Advertiser 5/8/1919

Edith Adeline Buckley was buried at Mannum on 25/3/1954; James Frank Buckley was buried at Mannum on 6/3/1937.

In Memoriam
The Advertiser 5/3/1938
Edith death
The Advertiser 25/3/1954

The newspaper death notice for Edith Adeline tells me that her children Rosa, Reuben, Annie, Frank, Eva, Laurence, Gwendoline, Robert, Terence and Amy were all alive on 25/3/1954. Since the the death notice does not include Ivy's name along with the names of the other ten, we can be sure that she was not, after all, Edith Adeline's daughter. Genealogy SA's online record search reveals that in fact she was the daughter of Annie Laura Buckley; evidently the family to keep this secret. It transpires that Annie's sister Gwendoline also had a child born out of wedlock: Lois Buckley, only daughter of Mrs G. Hynes, married Neville Smith on 8/3/1952.

Lois marriage
The Advertiser 3/3/1952

A 74 year old Lois Smith died on 23/3/2006, and was cremated at Centennial Park on 28/3/2006.

James grave Edith grave

— Elizabeth C. B. Gower —

The Mrs W. Gower mentioned in Thomas' obituary was Elizabeth Cordelia Blanche Worden, who married James William Gower, whose father was named James Gower, at PM Manse, Gawler, on 11/6/1891. The bride's age was given as 21 (a slight overstatement) and the groom's was given as 30. James William must have been known as William, presumably to distinguish him from his father. I think it probable that the "unidentified couple" shown above are in fact William and Elizabeth.

I found birth registration records for two children of William and Elizabeth: Walter James Gower, born at Yatta Creek on 5/8/1891, and Norman Albert Gower, born at Williamstown on 20/4/1893. They also had a third son, Clifford William Gower, who was born on 18th October, 1912. Elizabeth Cordelia Blanche Gower died at age 83, and was buried on 8/11/1954 in the Williamstown Cemetery alongside her husband, who had died two years earlier, aged 92, buried on 19/11/1952.

As mentioned above, James William Gower was the brother of the Emma Ellen Gower who married Elizabeth's brother Richard, and was also the brother of the Jessie Catherine Gower who married Elizabeth's nephew George Gerald Wilson.

JWG death
The Advertiser 19/11/1952
ECBG death
The Advertiser 7/12/1954

Newspaper notices show that Norman A. Gower married Ethel M. Patterson, daughter of A. Patterson, on 18th December 1913, at St Peters Church Williamstown, and that they had a daughter named Muriel Lorraine born at Williamstown on 2/5/1917.

Gower marriage
The Advertiser 24/1/1916
The Advertiser 24/5/1917

On the back of the picture of Muriel is written "To Aunt Ed, from Muriel". Since I received it via a Buckley descendant, "Aunt Ed" must refer to Edith Adeline Buckley.

Norman Albert Gower died at age 65 and was buried at Williamstown on 6/2/1959. Ethel Martha Gower is buried in an adjacent plot: she was 77 when she died and was buried on 8/6/1971.

transcontinental railway
railway reverse

James and Elizabeth's son Walter enlisted in the AIF on 16/11/1915. His age at enlistment was given as 24 years and 2 months. He was a Police Constable and unmarried at the time of his enlistment. His war service was spent in Egypt, from April 1916 to November 1917. He was wounded in his left arm in April 1917, and although he returned to active service in August he was admitted to hospital again in September, and then returned to Australia to be discharged. He died on 10/1/1933.

page number .
The Advertiser 5/5/1917

According to South Australian marriage records, Walter James Gower (aged 27) married Mary Louise Baum (31, daughter of August William Baum) on 3/8/1918 at St James Church West Adelaide. A descendant of theirs tells me that Mary was actually named Louise Marie Baum, although she was always known as Mary.

In 1922 Wal built a house at Prospect, which became the family home.

pyramids wal
Wally Gower and a mate in Egypt
(It is believed that Wally is the man on the right)

The images above are reproduced from a postcard Wally sent to Mary on May 16th 1916. The photo of Mary and Wally shown below is believed to have been taken at Victor Harbour (on Granite Island, I would say, judging from the background). I suppose that it was taken shortly after their marriage.

Wal and Mary
Wal's father?

Mary and Wally had one daughter, Shirley Jean Gower, always known as Jean, who was born on 1/8/1921. Wally died on 10/1/1933, Mary died on 10/12/1970. They are both buried in the North Road Cemetery, Nailsworth.

Gower marriage
The Advertiser 28/9/1918
The Advertiser 10/10/1919
police funeral
The News 12/1/1933
The Advertiser 1/1/1946

I am indebted to one of Clifford William Gower's daughters for telling me of Clifford William's existence and passing on the following information about him. He married Gwynneth Doris Clara Hill (of Willaston) on 31 October, 1936, at Methodist Parsonage, Adelaide. They had a son born in 1937, and daughters born in 1939 and 1948. Clifford served in the RAAF from 30/7/1940 until 16/11/1945. He died on 2/8/1988 and is buried at Williamstown. Gwynneth Doris Clara Gower died on 9/8/1975; her ashes are buried with her husband.

JS Hammat 18 JS Hammat
John Stuart Hammat

— Laura G. Hammat —

The Mrs S. Hammatt mentioned in Thomas' obituary was Laura Gwendoline Worden, who married John Stuart Hammat, whose father was named William, on 25/4/1899 at the residence of Rev. J. J. Darwin; the bride was 22 and the groom 29. John Stuart Hammat was a teacher, but his teaching service record indicates that he was not a particularly good one. Note that there is a separate teaching service record for John Stuart Hammatt, but surely both records relate to the same person!

I am told that to the Buckley family Laura Gwendoline was know as "Aunt Gwen". Moreover, in several places I have seen John Stuart referred to as Stuart. So henceforth I shall call them Gwen and Stuart.

Gwen and Stuart had the following children: Laura Florence Hammat (b. 10/12/1899, Petersburg), Annie Eva Hammat (b. 2/9/1901, North Adelaide), Doris Jean Hammat (b. 19/10/1904, Williamstown), William Gordon Hammat (b. 10/12/1906, Gawler), Edna Gwendoline Hammat (b. 29/12/1909, d. 16/8/1918), Howard Hammat (b. 28/3/1911, d. 28/3/1911, Williamstown), John Rutherford Hammat (b. 1/1/1913, North Gawler) and Edith Enid Hammat (b. 29/6/1917, Enfield).

Edna death
The Advertiser 21/8/1918

Laura Florence's birthplace, Petersburg, subsequently had its name changed to Peterborough. The web page German placenames in South Australia quotes a 1916 report of a South Australian Government "Nomenclature Committee" as saying

"...the time has now arrived when the names of all towns and districts in South Australia which indicate a foreign enemy origin should be altered, and that such places should be designated by names either of British origin or South Australian native origin... We find, from a careful examination of the official records, that there are on the map of South Australia at least 67 geographical place names of enemy origin, ranging from an important centre like Petersburg to trigonometrical stations and obscure hills in the remote interior. There may be a few not officially recorded which have escaped our notice."

No doubt it was at about this time that Franz Buckley (see above) started calling himself Frank.

Enid on Laddie Enid on Laddie: reverse

In the picture shown above, the girl on the foal must be Edith Enid Hammat, who was evidently known as Enid. The words "Amy Howlett" written on the back represent someone's incorrect guess as to the identities of the people; however, it must be a Hammat picture, since Enterprise was the name of the Hammat family home, near Williamstown. If the photo were taken near the end of 1919, then Enid would have been about 2 and a half years old, and her mother, Gwen, would have been 43.

Presumably the initials A. E. H. in the bottom left corner are those of the sender of the card (which was sent to a Buckley descendant). I guess that A. E. H. stands for Anne Eva Hammat.

Laura Hammat
Laura F. Hammat
Laura Dunn
Laura F. Dunn, September 1928

Laura Florence Hammat (27) married Bernard Dunn (31, son of William Dunn) on 26/7/1926 at the residence of S. C. Myers at Goodwood Park. Bernard Dunn apparently died less than three years after this marriage, since the widowed Laura Florence Dunn married Harold Gordon Baker (32, son of Alfred Baker) on 18/1/1929 at St Paul's Church Adelaide. Courtesy of the photo shown above I know that Laura and Bernard Dunn had a son: the writing on the back of the photo shown above says "To Aunt Edie with Love and Best Wishes from Laura", to which has been added by another hand "taken Sept 1928, Murton at 15 months". Laura Florence Baker was buried at Williamstown on 12/1/1938.

Laura death
The Advertiser 10/1/1939

Anne Eva Hammat (34) married William James Hall (31, son of William Hall) on 11/1/1936 at the Methodist Church, Williamstown. Bill Hall was from Granton, in Tasmania, and Bill and Anne evidently went to live in Tasmania, since Anne died in Hobart in 1945.

Anne engagement
The Advertiser 8/8/1945
John engagement
The Advertiser 1/1/1934
Anne death
The Advertiser 8/8/1945
Doris marriage
The Advertiser 5/8/1932

I know of marriages of four of the siblings of Laura and Anne. Doris Jean Hammat (27) married Henry Charles Carman Oates (23, son of John Henry Oates) on 13/8/1932 at the Methodist Church, Williamstown. William Gordon Hammat (21) married Ada Janet Gibbs (22, daughter of Walter Gibbs) on 18/10/1928 at St Michaels Church, Mitcham. John Rutherford Hammat (22) married Mavis Elma Pomeroy (daughter of Richard Pomeroy) on 19/1/1935 at Draper Memorial Church Adelaide. And Edith Enid Hammat (19) married William James Tennant (23, son of Alfred John Tennant) on 30/1/1937 at Maughan Church, Adelaide.

Williamstown Institute Committee
Williamstown Institute Committee, J. S. Hammat 2nd from left

Laura Gwendoline and John Stuart Hammat are buried alongside each other in the Williamstown Cemetery. She was 77 when she died, and was buried on 5/4/1955; he died on 4/12/1950, aged 81, and was buried on 5/12/1950.

JSH death
The Advertiser 5/12/1950

— Amy A. Howlett —

The Mrs P. Howlett mentioned in Thomas' obituary was Ambrosine Adelia Worden, who married Philip John Howlett, son of Michael Howlett, on 14/4/1900, at the Manse, Glenelg. The bride was aged 22 and the groom was aged 26. For more information see the Philip John Howlett and Ambrosine Adelia Worden page.

Note that Mrs Howlett (Amy Worden) is listed as one of the oldest old scholars to participate in the "Back to Williamstown" celebrations.

— Geraldine Mildred Kennewell —

The Mrs W. Kennewell mentioned in Thomas' obituary was Geraldine Mildred Worden, who married William Thomas Kennewell, son of William Henry Kennewell, at St Peter's Church Williamstown on 10/1/1905. The bride was 24 and the groom 30.

On the back of the wedding photo shown below someone has written "Mildred and Bill Kenniwell"; so apparently Geraldine Mildred was yet another person who was known by her second name.

Bill and Mildred
Leila and Doss

Bill Kennewell's father, William Henry, died in Subiaco W.A. on 31/3/1904. An advertisement in the Gawler Bunyip of 27/1/1905, concerned with the administration of William Henry Kennewell's estate, describes William Thomas Kennewell as a miner of Barossa SA, formerly of Ravensthorpe WA. A "history time line" web page on the Shire of Ravensthorpe web site tells us that gold was found in the area in 1898 and 1899; no doubt it was the lure of gold that attracted Bill Kennewell to Ravensthorpe.

William Thomas Kennewell was one of two executor's of his father's estate. The other was a Barossa prospector named William Dawes, who I presume was William Henry Kennewell's father-in-law: William Henry Kennewell had married Mary Mead Dawes in 1874, and William Henry's brother Edward Walter had married Emily Dawes in 1882. There is an obituary of William Richard Manly Dawes in the Bunyip of 26/1/1906, mentioning Mrs W. H. Kennewell and Mrs E. W. Kennewell as two of his daughters.

Estate of WH Kennewell
The Bunyip (Gawler) 27/1/1905
Homestead Lease
Kalgoorlie Miner 27/2/1903
leaving Kalgoorlie
Kalgoorlie Miner 8/11/1905

After their marriage Mildred and Bill lived for a time in Western Australia. The Western Australia Registry of Births Deaths and Marriages online index search shows that there was a stillborn male Kennewell child in the Blackwood registration district in 1906; he was buried in the Old Greenbushes Cemetery on 28/1/1906. The birth of a Leila E. G. Kennewell was registered in 1907, also in the Blackwood district.

The West Australian of 23/7/1906 has a report of a railway accident in which Mrs Kennewell "of the Bunbury end of Greenbushes" received minor injuries.

Free phonographs!
The Catholic Press 30/9/1909
Dorothea marriage
The Advertiser 13/10/1939

William Thomas and Geraldine Mildred Kennewell had two children born in South Australia: Dorothea Mabel Kennewell (b. 2/2/1913, North Gawler) and Lloyd Elvin Kennewell (born 29/7/1917, Rose Park, died aged 8 weeks).

Dorothea Kennewell married Raymond Carter at Christ Church, North Adelaide, on 9/9/1939. For "something old" she wore Ann Eva's wedding ring. I wonder if the ring is still in the family!

Leila Enid Geraldine Kennewell (19, daughter of William Thomas Kennewell) married Vollrath Ernst Krieg (23, son of Paul Heinrich Krieg) on 19/2/1927, at St Peters Church Williamstown. Ernst and Leila are buried at Willaston: he died on 31/12/1969, aged 66, and she died on 29/6/1983, aged 75.

Death Notice
The Advertiser 29/9/1917
Mildred death
The Advertiser 9/10/1941
Grave of Ernst and Leila
Grave of Ernst and Leila

Geraldine Mildred Kennewell died on 8/9/1941. She and William Thomas Kennewell are both buried in the North Road Cemetery, Nailsworth S.A., and information from a list of the headstones reveals that William Thomas died in 1955.

Further comments

There are several Wordens buried at Willaston, and the burial records held by the South Australian Genealogy and Heraldry Society also include many Wordens. These people were not not necessarily closely related to my Wordens, since one George Worden and family came to South Australia in 1849 on the Samuel Boddington. This family was at St Cleer at the time of the 1841 census, and I have not been able to make any connection between them and my Wordens.

According to Thomas Worden's obituary, 45 of his grandchildren were alive at the time of his death. According to me, there were at least

which makes 46. But perhaps Wilton Worden should not be included.

The obituary also says that Thomas had 19 greatgrandchildren. I may have found them all: six children of Rupert Eva Wilson (George, Jean, Norman, Hector, Joan and Kenneth), three children of George Gerald Wilson (Allan, Murray and Verna), three children of Ethel Blanche Adelia Bennett (Ronald, Rita and Harold), two children of Vera Ann Eva Pellew (Vera and Olive), one or two children of Rosa Whitfield (Rita and Sylvia, but I do not know if Sylvia was born before 9/8/1921), one child of Richard Warwick Worden (Warwick), one child of Walter James Gower (Jean, born eight days before her greatgrandfather's death), one child of Norman Albert Gower (Muriel) and one child of Annie Laura Buckley (Ivy). That makes 19 or 20, depending on when Sylvia Whitfield was born. But it is also possible that one of the others that I have counted actually died before 9/8/1921.

The Hammats

William Hammat, father of Stuart, was born in Sydney in 1841, to parents named John and Elizabeth. (The index has the surname as "Hammet".) John Hammatt and Betsy Harvey were married in Kenwyn on 10/3/1833. The online image of the marriage record, provided by, shows that although the clergyman recorded the groom's surname as Hammett, the groom himself wrote it as Hammatt. One of the witnesses was named Theoder Harvey. The first child of John and Betsy was named James; he received an Arminian Bible Christian baptism (Falmouth Circuit) on 21/5/1834. The baptism record says that he was baptized at Wood, which is in Kenwyn Parish, gives his date of birth as 4/11/1833, and also has the information that his mother's parents were Theodore and Jane Harvey. I have been unable to discover when John and Betsy arrived in Sydney, or when they left Sydney for South Australia, but there are South Australian birth records for the following children: Elizabeth Jane Hammat (Adelaide District, 10/6/1845), Theodore Hammat (Adelaide District, 6/12/1846), Elizabeth Jane Hammat (South Para District, 28/2/1849), John Hammat (Adelaide District, 10/4/1851, died in Magill on 22/2/1932), Ann Hammat (Lyndoch District, 24/10/1852, died at Enterprise (near Williamstown) on 8/3/1867) and Theodore Hammat (Williamstown, 15/3/1854, died in Camden on 25/11/1935).

It appears that John Hammat was, first and foremost, a mine captain. Most notably, he was captain of the Enterprise Copper Mine, near Williamstown, in the early 1850's. Apparently Enterprise at first exhibited significant potential, but that potential was never realized. In 1861 John was captain of the Mount Craig Mine, which I believe was near Hawker, but it would seem that nothing much came of this mine either.

The Register 31/7/1850
Mount Craig
The Register 31/5/1861

Mining being relatively unsuccessful, John and his sons took up farming. John, James and John junior all took up selections in the hundreds of Melville and Dalrymple, on southern Yorke Peninsula, in the early 1870's. John's wife, Elizabeth, was tragically killed in an accident at Sunbury, near Yorketown, on 13/12/1876.

Elizabeth grave
See Sunbury Cemetery, from Flinders Ranges Research
Elizabeth death
The Register 30/12/1876
John death
The Register 11/2/1885

I presume that before their Yorke Peninsula purchases the Hammat's had farmed the land surrounding the Enterprise mine. This property was originally owned by someone in England, but was at some stage purchased by the Hammats. Enterprise became principal home of the Hammat family.

John Hammat died at Williamstown on 4/2/1885.

Mail contract
The Register 29/10/1866
James auction
The Register 12/3/1886

William Hammat had the Williamstown and Mount Crawford mail contract from 1867 to 1870, presumably supplementing farming income. The auction notice above indicates that James Hammat gave up farming in the Williamstown area in 1886. According to the notice he was intending to leave South Australia, but if he did so then he returned after a short absence. He went to live in the Wilmington district.

William Hammat was involved in an attempt to revive the Enterprise mine in 1888.


[From our Gawler Correspondent.]
Within the category of old mines resuscitated must be placed the Enterprise Copper Mine, near Williamstown, known as Hammat's. Considering the promising indications that accompanied the early development of this mine it is astonishing that it has remained idle for so long a time. Were it not for the fact that it was situated on private property, the owner of which resided in England, it is more than probable it would have occupied a position among the successful mines of South Australia to-day. It was discovered just forty years ago by the late Captain Hammat and a small Company formed to work it, of which the following were among the shareholders: — The Hon. John Colton, Messrs. Joshua Gurr, Suter, Abbott, and the late Joel Roberts. This Company experienced a difficulty in coming to terms with the owner of the property, but an agreement was finally come by which he was to receive one-twelfth of the gross output. This Company carried on work for three years and did a great deal of work, employing about thirty hands. At the end of that period and when the mine just began to pay its way the Victorian diggings broke out, and the miners all leaving for that field, the mine was abandoned. A second attempt was made about twenty-two years ago, when another small Company was formed. This Company was successful in making better terms with the landlord, he agreeing to take one-twentieth of the gross output, but they were comparatively poor, and after working about eighteen months, most of which time was occupied in cleaning out the mine, their funds became exhausted and they were compelled to suspend operations. To show the opinion held of the mine by the six miners who were employed at that time, it might be stated that they offered to sink the main shaft a further depth of 60 feet and drive a crosscut 40 feet (which work would have taken them fully six months), if they were allowed all the ore they could get out in twelve months. The Company, however, thought the demand excessive, and endeavoured to come to better terms, but while this was going on. the mine gradually filled with water, the miners' tools and about 2 tons of ore being left in the mine. No Further attempt to develop the mine was made until about six weeks ago, when Mr. W. F. Wincey, of Gawler fame, becoming acquainted with its past history, decided to institute enquiries. The result of his enquiries was that he decided to restart the mine at once, and with his accustomed energy has already got preliminary arrangements in a forward state. In the interim the land on which the mine is situated had changed hands, but the original owner had retained the mineral rights. Mr. Wincey was, however, successful in securing a lease of the property and mineral rights on favourable terms, viz., £25 ground rent, and 5 per cent. of the net profits. He also secured a lease of the adjoining property to the south, through which the lode runs. This formerly belonged to Mr. Joshua Gurr, one of the original share holders, but latterly he sold it to Mr. Hammat, retaining two-thirds of the mineral rights to himself. On Saturday last, through the courtesy of Mr. Wincey, a party of gentlemen, which included Mr. J. B. Austin, inspected the property. The mine is situated about 11 miles from Gawler on the main Gawler and Williamstown road, and the drive thither presents more than ordinary interest and attractions. Arriving at the mine the party were met by the Mining Manager (Mr. W. Hammat, son of the late Captain Hammat), by whom they were shown the various points of interest, and from whom much information concerning the past history of the mine was attained. The main lode which, by-the-way, has branches running into it, runs almost due north and south, and can be traced on the surface fully a mile to the south, and for nearly half a mile to the north, where it becomes split np. The lode has a uniform width of 18 feet between the walls, which are of schistose formation. It underlies to the east about 1 foot in 3. The main shaft has been sunk to a depth of 120 feet, the dimensions of it being 9 x 4. There is also an underlie shaft the same depth. A tunnel has been cut into the hill along the course of the lode for a length of 300 feet to the underlie shaft, a crosscut from the main shaft at 60 feet intersecting it about half way. From this point a winze has been put down to the 120 feet level, where there is another crosscut and a drive from there to the underlie shaft. At the 60feet level the carbonates of copper and malachite were obtained, but as the water level was passed this changed into sulphides and the seams of ore gradually widened. At the 120 feet level there was a Beam of yellow ore about 9 inches thick for 40 feet, a little further on some rich black ore being met with. Mr. Hammat informed the party that a solid block of yellow ore weighing over 2 cwt. was taken from here, and they also were shown some rich-looking specimens which were in his possession. A specimen from the 2cwt. block had been assayed for Mr. Wincey, and yielded 25 per cent. of copper. There is at present on the ground a 6-horsepower steam engine, and within a few days there will be a steampump and winding-gear. Several Moonta miners have been engaged, and they speak in the highest terms of the indications met with. Altogether the place presented quite a lively appearance. There is a stream of water running through the property all the year round, and to the south as far as the eye could reach is one solid mass of timber. This has led Mr. Wincey to consider the advisibility of smelting the ore on the ground, and the result of his deliberations are that as soon as practicable furnaces will be erected for that purpose. This of course will find employment for a number of woodcarters. On the whole the party were well satisfied that there were many indications of a pay able and permanent mine, and if its future management is characterized by the same thoroughness as has marked the proceedings of the past few weeks it will be no fault of the promoters if it does not develop into a first-class mine.
Article from The South Australian Register, 15/5/1888

I imagine that the enterprising Mr Wincey, like those that preceded him (with the possible exception of the English landowner), lost money on the Enterprise mine.

James death
The Advertiser 4/7/1911

James Hammat, eldest son of John and Elizabeth, married Louisa Francis at Gawler Plains on 22/3/1856. He died at Williamstown on 3/7/1911, aged 77.

The Register 9/3/1874
John death
The Advertiser 23/2/1932

John Hammat, the son of John and Elizabeth born in 1851, married Anne Cullen at Gawler on 5/3/1874. He died at Magill on 22/2/1932.

The Register 28/3/1868

Elizabeth Jane Hammat, born 1849, married John Hosking at Lyndoch Valley on 26/3/1868. She died in Grafton, New South Wales, on 30/7/1936.

Hammat brothers
The Hammat brothers. Left to right: John, Theodore, William and James
The Register 18/5/1876
Theo death
The Advertiser 26/11/1935

Theodore Hammat, born 1854, married Emma Jane Trevillian at Sunbury on 20/4/1874. He died at Camden on 25/11/1935. At the time of the marriage of his youngest daughter Stella, in 1919, Theodore was living in Wentworth, New South Wales. We also see from the newspaper marriage notice that Theodore had a son called Captain J. Hammat. I presume that—unlike his grandfather Captain J. Hammat—he was not a mine captain.

The Advertiser 25/4/1919
The Register 7/11/1868

William Hammat's wife, the mother of Stuart, was Christina Jean Gordon; she was born in Dundee, Scotland, on 12/2/1849, the daughter of John Gordon and Christina Smith. William and Christina were married at Williamstown on 5/11/1868. Stuart was the first of their eleven children; the others were Ann (21/2/1871 to 18/8/1962), Henrietta Catherine (30/8/1872 to 3/4/1960), Arthur James (18/9/1871 to 16/4/1951), William Douglas (10/9/1879 to 5/10/1957), Leslie Theodore (9/9/1881 to 6/6/1971), Ethel Christina (19/4/1883 to 11/7/1980), Edna Evelyn (9/8/1885 to 7/12/1913), Florence Elizabeth (3/11/1886 to 7/8/1956), Howard Hartley (28/6/1887 to 3/7/1887) and Ida Averil (16/10/1892 to 15/2/1976). William died at Unley on 27/8/1917 and Christina died at Unley on 12/5/1914.

William death
The Advertiser 29/8/1917
Christina death
The Register 13/5/1914

The Kennewells

My Kennewell relatives are descended from a Richard Kennewell, who, with his wife and seven children (of whom three were adults) came to South Australia in the ship Canton, which sailed from London on 27/4/1846 and arrived at Port Adelaide on 31/7/1846. A list of the passengers was published in the South Australian Register on 1/8/1846: it includes "Richard Kennewell, wife, and four children; Jonathan Kennewell, Sarah Kennewell, Thomas Kennewell;".

The Register 1/8/1846

Richard Kennewell and Jane Baxter were married on 27/8/1820 in Grantham, Lincolnshire. It is generally believed that Jane Baxter was a widow whose maiden name was Johnson. A web site called "The Fairhall Files" has a Jane Johnson page that names her parents as Robert Johnson, who was baptized on 25/11/1771, and Rebecca Brooks, who was baptized on 2/3/1781.

Gary Standen's The Kennewell Family web page also names Richard Kennewell's wife as Jane Johnson, as does Di Cummings' version of the passenger list of the Canton.

According to FamilySearch, a Robert Johnson, son of Robert and Mary, was baptized in Wrawby, Lincolnshire, on 25/1/1771 (rather than 25/11/1771), and a Rebecca Brooks, daughter of John and Becca, was baptized in Wootton, Lincolnshire, on 2/3/1781. Wootton and Wrawby are about 10 kilometres distant from each other, near Scunthorpe in North Lincolnshire. However, since they are about eighty kilometres from Grantham, I am inclined to doubt that these people were the parents of Jane Kennewell.

The information that Jane Kennewell's parents were named Robert Johnson and Rebecca Brooks comes from New South Wales death records. A Jane Kennewell died in Wentworth on 1/2/1870, aged 70, and the names of her parents are given on the death certificate.


The certificate says that the deceased Jane Kennewell had lived in Australia for a total of 24 years, in S. Australia and N. S. Wales. It certainly looks like the right Jane Kennewell: she would have been in Australia for almost exactly 23 years and 6 months. Note also that the informant was Jane's daughter, Sarah Butcher.

A 1983 book by Pat Barden and Nell Pyle with the title "Thicker than Water", and subtitle "The Cant and Kennewell Families", says this about Richard and Jane Kennewell:

Richard and Jane Kennewell lived in the tiny Lincolnshire village of Allington   ....   She was the daughter of Robert Johnson, a Labourer, and Rebecca née Brooks, who had at least one other child, Robert born at Honington near Allington and christened on 14.4.1809. At the time of her marriage to Richard, Jane was a widow by the name of Baxter. Neither she nor Richard could read or write.

English marriage records of this period should give the condition of both parties—spinster or widow for the bride, bachelor or widower for the groom—and should be either signed or marked by them both. In this case they both made marks, hence the conclusion that neither could read or write. However, the claim that the bride was a widow does not come from the marriage record, but is a deduction from the death certificate information.

The child Robert Kennewell referred to in the above passage apparently had several siblings: apart from Robert Johnson baptized on 14/4/1809, there was a John Johnson, baptized on 16/6/1805, an Ann Johnson, baptized on 22/2/1807, a Mary Johnson, baptized on 8/8/1811, a Robin Johnson, baptized on 23/2/1817, and a George Johnson baptized on 27/8/1820. These were all children of Rebecca and Robert, Robt or Robin Johnson, and baptized in Honington. There was also a Hannah Johnson, daughter of Robert and Rebecca baptized on 8/12/1823 in West Keal, some 50 or so kilometres from Honington, and I do not know whether or not to think that she belonged to the same family. Maybe the Ann baptized in 1807 moved to West Keal and got herself baptized again.

The 1851 census shows a 66 year old Robert Johnson living at Honington with his 72 year old wife Rebecca; Robert's birthplace was Barrowby and Rebecca's was Harmston. Barrowby and Honington are both just a few kilometres from Grantham, and Harmston about 40. At the 1841 census Robert's age was given as 55, Jane's as 60, and there was also a 20 year old George Johnson in the household.

The Robert Johnson and Rebecca Brooks identified by the Fairhall Files are certainly not the Robert and Rebecca Johnson of Honington, but the Robert Johnson of Honington seems a bit too young to be the father of Jane Kennewell, born in about 1800. So the mystery deepens.

Based on his age in 1851, it is natural to conjecture that Robert Johnson of Honington was the son of Thomas and Ann Johnson baptized in Barrowby on 14/8/1785. As for his wife, I can only find one Rebecca baptized in Harmston at about the right time: a Rebeccah Barker was baptized in Harmston on 3/1/1780.

Thanks to Lincs to the Past it is possible to obtain images of original Lincolnshire parish register records. In particular, it transpires that Robert Johnson and Rebecca Barker, both of the parish of Honington, were married in Honington on 14/5/1805. (Observe that this was only one month before the baptism of their son John.)

At Lincs to the Past one can also view the record of the marriage of Richard Kennewell and Jane Baxter. The handwriting is clear, and definitely says that the bride's name was Jane Baxter. And it also says that she was a spinster, not a widow. So we have a mystery: either the Jane Kennewell who died in Wentworth in 1870 was not the Jane Baxter who married Richard Kennewell in 1820, or else one of the records is wrong or misleading in some way.

Or, indeed, perhaps both of the records are wrong! Perhaps the 1820 bride was not Jane Baxter but Jane Barker: the officiating cleric might have been temporarily confused and written down the wrong name. Being illiterate, neither bride nor groom would have noticed the mistake. And as for the death certificate, Sarah Butcher could have misremembered her mother's maiden name, and written Brooks where she should have written Barker. According to this theory, Jane was Staineton Jane Barker, daughter of Rebeccah Barker and Joseph Staineton, baptized in Harmston on 8/1/1799. Furthermore, according to the theory, Joseph Staineton deserted Rebecca and Jane (or perhaps died) soon after Jane's baptism. And since Jane was still quite young when her mother married Robert Johnson, she grew up regarding Robert Johnson as her father.

It transpires that the three youngest children of Richard and Jane Kennewell were born after the commencement of civil registration in 1837. The birth certificate of James Kennewell, born in Allington (Lincs) on 21/5/1844, says that his mother's maiden name was Barker. This crucial extra evidence convinces me that the theory described above is correct: the names Baxter (on Jane's marriage record) and Brooks (on her death certificate) were both wrong. In each case the name should have been Barker.

James Kennewell birth cert
James Kennewell's birth certificate

The Fairhall Files and Kennewell Family web pages mentioned above both say that Jane's husband Richard died in Brompton SA on 23/9/1864, and the Fairhall Files page says that he is buried in the Hindmarsh Cemetery. "Thicker than Water" has the additional information that he was 63 and died of disease of the lungs. No doubt the age 63 appears in the South Australian death index. However, the 1841 English census gives his age as between 45 and 49, which would make him at least 68 in September 1863. This is probably slightly more reliable than the death record information, which was obviously not supplied by Richard himself.

So, in agreement with the Fairhall Files and Kennewell Family web pages, I think that Jane's husband Richard was probably the son of Jonathan and Elizabeth Kennewell, baptized on 2/2/1795 in Grantham, rather than the son of Ann Kennewell baptized on 24/2/1803 in Grantham.

The following children of Richard and Jane Kennewell were baptized in East Allington, Lincolnshire, quite near Grantham:

Since it appears that the first child arrived about two years after the marriage, and the subsequent children arrived at intervals of roughly two years after that, it is surprising that the baptisms of Jane and John were so close to each other. If they were twins one would expect them to have been baptized on the same day. I suppose the explanation must be that Jane was born in 1834 or even 1833, and the previous child Richard was also relatively old at his baptism, whereas John was baptized promptly after his birth. There is no evidence that there was another couple named Richard and Jane Kennewell in East Allington.

Presumably the eldest daughter, Rebecca, was named after her mother's mother, and the eldest son, Jonathan, was named after his father's father. The next daughter, Elizabeth, could well have been named after her father's mother. But it does not seem to be the case that the next son, or any son, was named after his mother's father. My guess is that Jane's biological father abandoned her mother Rebecca shortly after Jane's birth.

An 1841 census record shows a 45 year old agricultural labourer named Rd Kennywell living in East Allington with Jane (40), Elizabeth (15), Sarah (12), Thomas (10), Richard (8), Jane (3) and George (6 months). It looks as though the children baptized in 1835 both died in infancy; the Jane in the census record was surely the Jane Kenniwell whose birth was registered in the Newark district in the second quarter of 1838. And the George in the census must have been the George Kennivell whose birth was registered in the Newark district in the 4th quarter of 1840. (Newark is in Nottinghamshire, but the Newark registration district included nearby parts of Lincolnshire, such as East Allington.)

Two of the four Kennewell children who made the voyage on the Canton were certainly the Richard and Jane of the 1841 census record: their lives in Australia are well documented. The evidence is reasonably convincing that the other two were the George of the 1841 census record and the James Kennewell whose birth was registered in the Newark district in the second quarter of 1844 (see birth certificate above). There is a South Australian death record that matches George, and marriage and death records that match James.

— Rebecca —

The eldest daughter, Rebecca, married James Muxlow in the first quarter of 1844, and the second daughter, Elizabeth, married William Cant in the second quarter of 1842. These two couples both emigrated to New South Wales, and are both found amongst the passengers of the ship Briton, which arrived in New South Wales on 20/6/1844: see State Records NSW, NRS 5316, [4/4785], Briton 20 Jun 1844, passenger list, page 3 and page 5. William Cant's parents and several siblings were also passengers on the Briton, as were another family of Kennewells from Lincolnshire.

I believe that James and Rebecca Muxlow had five children, of whom two did not survive into adulthood. Rebecca's death is listed in the Maitland Burial Register; she died on 2/10/1855. The burial register has her age as 37, but she would have been only 32 or 33.

— Elizabeth —

"Thicker than Water" says that William and Elizabeth Cant had children named William Richard Cant (born 24/7/1844), Sarah Jane Cant (born 1/6/1846), Susannah Curtis Cant (born 18/12/1847) and Frances Eliza Cant (born 27/7/1850). In the text, Sarah Jane is referred to as Jane rather than Sarah. The book has extensive information concerning subsequent generations.

The NSW historical index search confirms that a William R Cant, son of William and Elizabeth, was born in 1844, that a Jane Cant, daughter of William and Elizabeth, was born in 1846, and that a Susannah Caut, daughter of William and Eliza, was born in 1847. Curtis, Susannah's middle name, was the maiden name of William Cant's mother.

Barry Leadbeater's historical South Australian Births page tells us that Frances Eliza Cant, daughter of William Cant and Elizabeth Kenniwell, was born in Bowden, SA, on 27/7/1849. The same source says that John Simon Cant, son of William Cant and Eliza Carrawell, was born at Bowden on 14/4/1852, and it seems to me conceivable that "Carrawell" is Kennewell mistranscribed. Barry Leadbeater's Historical South Australian Deaths says that John Simon Cant died at Bowden on 9/2/1853, and the Fairhall Files tell us that Elizabeth Cant died on 11/10/1852 in Hindmarsh, South Australia, where she is buried alongside her father.

In 1852 the Legislative Council passed Act No.16 permitting the establishment of District Councils and in 1853 Hindmarsh, Bowden and Brompton joined to form the "District of Hindmarsh" (gazetted 21/4/53). The entire Council area at that time "covered about 13 square miles, and held a population of about 3,500". The larger part of the Council area remained agricultural land.

The 1854 Council Rate Books confirm that Hindmarsh was the largest of the three villages at the time, with Bowden next in importance. In addition to the many industrial buildings at this time there were also numerous hotels, and a few churches including the following listed as being in Bowden: the Hindmarsh Bridge Hotel, the Governor Hindmarsh Inn, the Wellington Inn (Second Street), the Oddfellows Arms (Gilbert Street), and Farmers Arms (Sixth Street). Gibson Street, Bowden, developing as a "high street," was "made" in 1854.

Against much protestation that it would cut the district in half, the Colonial Government determined to construct the new railway from the City to the Port through Bowden and Brompton townships in 1854–56, with three intermediate stations at Bowden, Woodville and Alberton. The City to Port Adelaide line was the first government owned railway in the British colonies. The line officially opened on 19 April 1856.

Bowden Urban Village Master Plan (2009)

The Shipping Intelligence columns of the South Australian Register of 13/3/1848 and the The Maitland Mercury & Hunter River General Advertiser of 29/3/1848 reveal that Mr & Mrs Kennewell, with two sons and one daughter, travelled from Adelaide to Sydney via the steamer Juno in March 1848, leaving Adelaide on the 10th and arriving in Sydney on the 22nd. I presume that these people were Richard and Jane and their three youngest children, on their way to visit the two daughters who lived in New South Wales. It is surprising that they were able to afford to make this trip, but perhaps the NSW relatives helped pay the fare. Presumably they returned to Adelaide later in the year, accompanied by William and Elizabeth Cant and the three young Cant children, but I have not discovered when the return trip took place.

— Jane —

The passenger list of the Cleopatra, which left Port Adelaide for the eastern states on 9/4/1853, includes "Cant, Kennewell and 4 children".

The Register 11/4/1853

The Kennewell here must have been the deceased Elizabeth's sister Jane, who married William Cant in Maitland NSW on 11/8/1853. "Thicker than Water" lists 12 children of William and Jane, and has substantial information concerning their descendants. The book also says that Jane died on 12/12/1895, information that is confirmed by the Maitland Burial Register. It is recorded Jane Cant's age at her death was 57, which is consistent with the birth registration and 1841 census information given above.

— Sarah —

The Jane Kennewell who died in Wentworth in 1870 had previously lived in South Australia and had a daughter named Sarah Butcher. Barry Leadbeater's Historic South Australian Marriages has the information that Sarah Kennewell, 21, married John Butcher, 36, at Holy Trinity Church, Adelaide, on 13/9/1847. Surely this is the Sarah who later lived in Wentworth.

"Thicker than Water" says this:

[Jane Kennewell], we assume, went to live with her daughter Sarah who had married John Butcher and who lived at Wentworth, N.S.W.  It was there that Jane died at the age of 70 from diarrhoea.

Since the book says nothing more about John and Sarah Butcher, it could very well be that Jane's death certificate and the record of Sarah's marriage to John Butcher are the only sources for the information.

Sarah, baptized on 21/9/1828, and 12 years old on 6/6/1841 if the census data is accurate, would probably have only been 18 or 19 on 13/9/1847. But perhaps claiming to be 21 made things simpler for her. So I do think it likely that John Butcher's wife was the daughter of Richard and Jane Kennewell of Lincolnshire, and Jane was the Jane Kennewell who died in Wentworth. But it would be nice to have some further evidence to support these theories. There was a Sarah Butcher who died in Wentworth in 1904, but unfortunately her father's name was George, not Richard.

— Richard —

Barry Leadbeater's Historic South Australian Marriages has the information that younger Richard Kennewell married Ellen Waymouth on 25/3/1852. He was evidently attracted to the Victorian goldfields, and lived in White Hills, Bendigo, from the mid 1850's to his death in 1911. Kennewell Street, in White Hills, is named after him. He is buried in the White Hills Cemetery.

The Bendigo Advertiser 27/1/1911

Richard and Ellen had five children who predeceased their father, in addition to the six children referred to in the obituary. The children were Mary Jane (1852–1854), Richard Kennewell (1854–1926), Jonathan Thomas (1857–1923), Joseph James (1857–1940), Emma (1860–1862), William Henry (1862–1929), Frederick Charles (1865–1868), Ellen Weymouth (1867–1867), Charlotte Ellen (1869–1957), Mark Albert (1871–1888), Eliza Jane (1873–1955).

The eldest son (Richard) was born in Bowden S.A., the second son (Jonathan Thomas) was born in Sandhurst, as Bendigo was officially called at that time. So Richard and Ellen Kennewell evidently moved from South Australia to Victoria some time between 1854 and 1857.

William Henry Kennewell, who is not to be confused with his first cousin of the same name (to be discussed below), was, at the time of his death, an Adjutant in the Salvation Army. He married Emily Eva Trezise at the Salvation Army Barracks in Adelaide on 20/4/1887; they had children named William Ernest (born at Moonta Mines on 2/3/1888 and died at Moonta Mines on 7/8/1888,), Frederick Charles (born at Kapunda on 6/6/1889 and died at Kapunda in 1889), Emily Olive (born at Gawler South on 18/8/1890), Sydney H (1892–1893, born in Sydney), Richard J (1894–1980, born in Granville) and Grace E (1896–1982, born in Albury). A death notice in the Sydney Morning Herald tells us that William Henry died at St Peters on 16/5/1929.

Adjt Kennewell
Dubbo Liberal & Macquarie Advocate 10/5/1905
Kennewell quartet
Dubbo Liberal & Macquarie Advocate 5/8/1905

— George —

The Fairhall Files and Kennewell Family web pages both say—probably not independently—that George was born in 1840 and died in 1856. GenealogySA's online database search does not show any George Kennewell death 1856, but it does show that a George Kennewell died in the Gilbert district in 1860. The death index provides extra details: George was 19 years old, lived at Pine Creek, and died at Pine Creek on 20/1/1860. Observe that the age agrees with the birth date implied by the 1841 census, namely November 1840 (or thereabouts).

— Jonathan —

A labourer named Jonathan Kennewell gave evidence in a case at the Adelaide Police Courts on 13/2/1855; he was present at the Wellington Inn, Bowden, on January 2nd, when old Mr Chaston sold a horse named Young Sampson to his son David Chaston.

The New South Wales Historical Index Search shows that a Jonathan Kennewan, son of Richard and Jane, died in the Parramatta district in 1900. I suppose that this was Jonathan Kennewell, but I have no idea what he did in the years between 1855 and 1900.

— James —

James Kennewell, 19, son of Richard Kennewell, married Ellen Henderson, 21, daughter of James Henderson, on 4/5/1863. The marriage place was the residence of E. Francis, Pine Creek, in the Clare registration district.

The name Pine Creek does not uniquely determine a place in South Australia. I suspect that the residence of Mr Francis was at the Pine Creek that is a few miles south of Auburn, near Undalya. See google's map of the area.

A child named Frederick Henderson, son of Joseph Golland and Ellen Henderson, was born in the Adelaide district in 1862, and South Australian death records say that Fredrick Kennewell, adopted son of James Kennewell, died in the Upper Wakefield district in 1869. Additionally, James and Ellen had children named James (born 1863, died in Claremont W.A. on 7/10/1913), Jane (born 27/1/1866), Jonathan Henry Ernest (born 17/6/1868) and Helen (born in 1871). I have not found birth records for James and Helen, but there are marriage records: James married Louisa Opperman in 1889 and Helen married Uriah Herbert in 1891.

The elder James was undoubtedly the 27 year old James Kinnilwill of Kulpara Plains, who, according the South Australian death index, died at Kulpara Plains (in the Daly registration district) on 30/6/1871. The online South Australian State Gazetteer tells us that Kulpara Plain was a couple of kilometres south-east of Kadina, and is now called Boors Plain.

Ellen had two further children: Agnes Kennewell, daughter of Edward Andrews and Ellen Kennewell (née Henderson) was born in Kadina on 30/4/1874, and Charles Stewart Kennewell, son of Charles Stewart and Helen Kennewell (née Henderson), was born in the Daly district in 1877.

— Thomas —

Since the Kennewells were agricultural labourers in Lincolnshire, I presume that they continued as agricultural labourers in South Australia, at least initially (though no doubt they would have happily taken the best paying jobs they could find). In particular, it seems that Thomas Kennewell was, for a time, a farmer. He suffered significant loss in a bush fire near Auburn in 1857.

The Register 9/1/1857
Tom Kennewell
Thomas Kennewell

It is surely no coincidence that the farmer Thomas Kennewell had a neighbour named Edward Francis: Thomas Kennewell had married Mary Ann Francis in 1850, and (according to "Thicker than Water") Mary Ann's father's name was Edward. No doubt this was the same E. Francis who hosted the marriage of James Kennewell and Ellen Henderson.

The South Australian marriage index has the information that Thomas Kenwell, aged 19, married Mary Ann Francis, aged 17, at St George's Church Gawler on 19/5/1850. The names of the fathers of the bride and groom are not recorded. But 19 is right for the age of Thomas Kennewell, son of Richard and Jane, since he was 10 on 6/6/1841. Barry Leadbeater's database of Historical South Australian Marriages includes the marriage of Thomas Kennewell and Mary Ann Francis on 19/5/1850, but does not have the other details that appear in the marriage index.

"Thicker than Water" says that Mary Ann's father, Edward Francis, was a farmer at Humbug Scrub. He certainly died at Humbug Scrub on 25/8/1876, but he died at the residence of his son-in-law.

Edwd Francis
The Register 14/9/1876

"Thicker than Water" also has the information that Mary Ann's mother's maiden name was Elizabeth Sarah Clarke.

A letter about "Sim's Rush", published on 21/10/1887 in the Gawler Bunyip, tells us that Tom Kennewell was one of the prospectors on the Barossa goldfields at the time of "the old Barossa Rush, 21 years ago this month", and there are several newspaper references to "Kennewell" in connection with prospecting in the Barossa area. Perhaps the 1857 fire persuaded Thomas to abandon farming.

Chronicle and Weekly Mail 26/8/1871

Thomas and Mary Ann had fifteen children:

The eldest son appears in the South Australian birth index as William Henry Kennaway. But since the mother is Mary Ann Francis and the father is Thomas, there is no doubt that the surname is wrong.

Mark Albert Kennewell married Dinah Ann Adams at St George Church Gawler on 12/11/1883. The marriage record confirms that Mark was 23 and that his father's name was Thomas; Dinah was 17, her father's name was John. Dinah and Mark had ten children, including the noted author Myrtle Rose White. Mark Albert Kennewell was buried on 15/5/1931 at Willaston; Dinah Ann Kennewell was buried on 27/5/1949, also at Willaston.

Andrew James Kennewell married Rose Adams, sister of Dinah Ann Adams, at the Gawler Registry office on 29/6/1885. Rose was only 15 years old at the time. Rose and Andrew James had nine children.

Percy Augustus Kennewell was mentioned above in connection with Richard Warwick Worden. There is also a RootsWeb WorldConnect Project website called "Kennewell" which has a Percy Augustus Kennewell page, as well as a Thomas Kennewell page that has some further information on Thomas Kennewell, his son William Henry, and William Henry's son Walter Charles.

Edward Walter Kennewell married Emily Dawes in 1882. They had five children.

William Henry Kennewell married Mary Mead Dawes at St George Church Gawler on 24/1/1874. Mary, who was 16, was a sister of the Emily Dawes who later married Edward Walter Kennewell. Mary Mead and William Henry had ten children, including William Thomas Kennewell, husband of Geraldine Mildred Worden.

The Gowers

As mentioned above, Richard Warwick Worden and Elizabeth Cordelia Blanche Worden (son and daughter of Thomas and Ann) both married Gowers, and George Gerald Wilson (grandson of Thomas and Ann) also married a Gower. These three Gowers were siblings; their parents were James Gower and Hannah Savary, who were married at Lyndoch on 28 November 1859. James was the son of another James, who, with his wife and seven children, arrived in South Australia on 14th January 1852, via the ship Charlotte Jane. The eldest daughter, Mary Ann, was married, and accompanied her husband, whose name was Edward Vinall. A list of passengers of the Charlotte Jane is available online, courtesy of Robert Janmaat and The passengers of relevance to this story were James Gower (42, agricultural labourer), Mary Ann Gower (43), Elizabeth Gower (19, Servant), James Gower (15, agricultural labourer), Amy Gower (13), Ellen Gower (12), Jane Gower (9), Eliza Gower (1), Edward Vinall (24, agricultural labourer) and Mary A. Vinall (23).

The following information appears in 1851 census data for the parish of Biddenden in the county of Kent (in census piece 1620, folio 92, page 19).

Bush, Biddenden, Kent:
James GowerHead45Ag LabKent Headcorn
Mary Ann GowerWife45 Sussex Hastings
James GowerSon15 Kent Headcorn
Ann GowerDaughter13ScholarKent Headcorn
Ellen GowerDaughter11ScholarKent High Halden
Jane GowerDaughter8ScholarKent High Halden
Eliza GowerDaughter1 Kent Biddenden

It is clear that these were seven of the Gowers who travelled to South Australia the next year; the census enumerator made a minor error by writing "Ann" where he should have written "Amy".

Since Ellen (aged 11) and Jane (aged 8) were born in High Halden, it is unsurprising that ten years earlier the family were living in High Halden. The relevant 1841 census record can be found in piece 473, book 6, folio 19, page 8.

Beak House, High Halden (Hundred of Bakeley), Kent:
James Gower30FarmerKent
Mary Gower30 Kent
Mary Gower11 Kent
Elizabeth Gower9 Kent
Sarah Gower7 Kent
James Gower4 Kent
Emma Gower2 Kent
Ellen Gower1 Kent

From the 1851 record we know that James' wife was actually born in Sussex rather than Kent. Such minor errors are common enough in census records. I believe that the daughter Sarah married in 1852, and chose to remain in England rather than accompany the rest of the family to Australia.

In 1881 the Gawler newspaper The Bunyip carried a report of an inquest into a fire that destroyed a cottage near Williamstown. The cottage belonged to James Gower—I think this was James Gower the younger—and had recently been occupied by Stephen Gower, who was described as James' cousin. So it seems quite plausible that at least one brother of James Gower the elder also came to South Australia.

A John Gower (aged 24), his wife Mary Ann (aged 21) and their daughter Mary Ann (aged 11 months) were amongst the passengers in the Winchester, which sailed from London on 10th June 1838 and arrived in South Australia on 23rd September. John and Mary Ann had further children in South Australia, and South Australian birth records tell us that Mary Ann's maiden name was Cramp. Barry Leadbeater's database of Historical South Australian Births 1836 to 1856 includes the information that Sarah Ann Gower, daughter of John Gower and Mary Ann Cramp, was born at Reed Beds on 5th December 1839, and William Henry Gower, son of John Gower and Mary Ann Cramp, was born in Adelaide on 25th September 1854. It turns out that John and Mary Ann had other children born between 1839 and 1854 (although it seems that there are no records of these births). In particular, it appears that the Stephen Gower mentioned in the 1881 inquest referred to above, was a son of John and Mary Ann. So I conjecture that John was a brother of the elder James.

Barry Leadbeater's Historical South Australian Births database also includes the information that a Stephen Gower and a Sarah Ann Bramley had at least three children born in South Australia: Walter Gower, born at Barossa Survey on 29th February 1848, a female child (name not recorded) born in Adelaide on 10th September 1851, and Stephen Frederic Gower, born in Adelaide on 14th November 1853. Stephen (the father) died in 1857, and so was definitely not the cousin of James mentioned above. But distinguishing between Stephen son of John and Stephen Frederick son of Stephen is potentially more difficult.

Stephen Gower and Sarah Ann Bramley were married in Chatham Kent on 25th February 1838. There were (and no doubt are) a great many Gowers living in Kent, and Chatham is not particularly near to Headcorn, where James was born. The name alone by no means provides a sufficient reason for conjecturing that Stephen was related to John and James. But it transpires that all three went to live in the Barossa district, and perhaps this suggests that they were related.

Stephen and Sarah Ann were passengers in the Somersetshire which arrived in South Australia on 24th August 1939. Stephen was aged 23 and Sarah Ann 21. I suppose that these ages were given on their applications for free passage. Obviously the applications were made some time before the actual voyage, but how long before I do not know. In any case, it seems that Stephen was about two years younger than John. The Somersetshire passenger list also includes a Harriet Gower, of whom I have not been able to find any further mention, and a Jesse Gower, aged 20, and Jesse's wife Elizabeth, aged 19. Elizabeth's maiden name was Cramp, and so there is an almost irresistible temptation to conjecture that Jesse was a brother of John, and Jesse's wife a sister of John's wife. Sadly, proving such conjectures is likely to be difficult or impossible.

The marriage of Jesse Gower and Elizabeth Cramp was registered in the East Ashford district in the 2nd quarter of 1838 (although for Jesse the district name has been incorrectly recorded as East Ashton). Jesse and Elizabeth did not remain in South Australia, but proceeded to Van Diemen's Land, where they had at least two children: a son named Robert William, born in Launceston on 17 May 1841, and a son named James, born in Bagdad on 1 July 1843. (Birth register page images can be downloaded from Linc Tasmania.)

Robert William Gower birth
Robert William Gower birth registration [page image]
James Gower birth
James Gower birth registration [page image]

There is a RootsWeb's WorldConnect site, called fagan haines, that says that James, Stephen, John and Jesse Gower were indeed brothers, and says that their parents were William Gower and Mary Beeching. The fagan haines William Gower page says that, as well as four sons, William and Mary had five daughters: Ann, Mary, Betsy, Sarah and Rachel (but no Harriet).

There is a record of the birth and baptism of Betsy Gower on it says that she was born on 6 October 1809 and baptized in Headcorn on 16 March 1828, and also that her parents were William Gower and Mary Beeching. (Note that this was a Wesleyan baptism: a Church of England baptism record would not usually give the mother's maiden name.) The fagan haines site says also that James and Stephen were born in Headcorn, and gives their birth dates as 17 February 1806 and 26 July 1816. No doubt the author of the fagan haines site has seen the corresponding (Church of England) baptism records. Since it is somewhat unusual for Church of England baptism registers to give birth dates, I wonder if the given dates are actually baptism dates rather than birth dates.

The 1851 census record that I obtained a copy of says that James Gower was 45 on 30 March 1851, and born in Headcorn. This fits perfectly with the birth details given by fagan haines.

— John and Mary Ann —

It is recorded that shortly after their arrival in South Australia in 1838, John and Mary Ann Gower lost all their possessions in a fire. Later, while living at the Reedbeds (to the west of the city, near the present location of Adelaide Airport), they lost their possessions in a flood. By 1847 they were living near Highbury on the River Torrens, where they suffered two tragedies in the space of six months. On 13th November 1847 their sons John (aged six and a half) and Edward (aged five) were killed by the overturning of a bullock dray. Then on 25th May 1848 their daughter Mary Ann died from burns suffered when her clothes caught fire.

An inquest was held, on Monday, by William Wyatt, Esq, J. P., Coroner, at the house of Mr Richmond, at the Torrens, on the bodies of two brothers, John Gower, aged six.and a half years years, and Edward Gower, aged five years, sons of Mr John Gower, farmer, who met their deaths on Saturday, under the following lamentable circumstances; the two children were in a dray, driven by William Glissenbury, a boy of twelve years old. It had turned into Mr Richmond's section, and the driver was engaged in replacing the slip rails, when the bullocks set off. It is supposed that the youngest child, who was much addicted to playing whips, had urged them forward, but the evidence was not very clear. The driver could give little information of the accident, but from his evidence, and a view of the ground, by the coroner and jury, the dray seems to have jolted over a stump, when the child was thrown out, and broke his neck. The tracks show that it proceeded for some distance till one wheel passing over an immense fallen tree, it was completely upset, and the younger child was dashed on his head, so that his death must have been almost instaneous. The boy Glissenbury stated that he saw the elder child moving on the ground, and making a low moaning. He passed him and went on to Mr Richmond's, when he reported that the dray had turned over, and that a child was hurt. (This is Richmond's statement, the boy says he mentioned two children.) Mrs Gower being informed went out and found the body of her younger child, but had no idea that the elder was with the dray. The elder was subsequently missed, and the father, going out to seek him, found him quite dead three hours after the accident, which happened at noon. The jury returned a verdict of "Accidental death, caused by the over-turning of a dray."
Article from The South Australian, 19/11/1847
An inquest was held yesterday, at Mr Richmond's section on the Torrens, on the body of Mary Ann Gower, who came to her death under the following circumstances. It appears that about noon of the 23rd instant, the deceased, who was about twelve years, of age. proceeded in the absence of her mother to light a fire for the purpose of cooking her father's dinner, when her clothes became ignited by a spark from the embers. On perceiving her condition she ran to a water-hole, a short distance from the house, and succeeded in extinguishing the flames; not however until the whole of her attire had been on fire. She made her way back to the house, and a neighbour appearing, the alarm was given and medical aid sent for from Town. Dr. Colter stated in evidence that on his arrival he found a burn on the body of the deceased extending over the whole trunk, with the exception of the upper part of the chest. The arms and legs were likewise much injured, the surface was cold, and the pulse at the wrist scarcely perceptible, and the doctor at once declared the case hopeless. He administered the usual remedies, and the patient lingered until four o'clock of the morning of the 25th when she died. It is remarkable that the parents of the deceased, who have been about eight years in the colony, had the misfortune to have all their goods burnt shortly after their arrival, since which time, while residing at the Reed Beds, everything belonging to them was washed away by the flood; and again, about six months ago, three fine boys were killed on the spot by the overturning of a dray. Thus this ill fated family have met with a series of misfortunes which no forethought could provide against, and no care or industry overcome. They are hardworking industrious people, and are much liked and respected by their neighbours.
Article from Adelaide Observer, 27/5/1848

A 60 year old John Gower died on 20th February 1869 at Yatta, near Williamstown. Newspaper notices of his death say that he was one of the first discoverers of the Barossa goldfields. As we shall see below, there are several other newspaper items that show beyond any doubt that this John Gower was indeed the man who arrived in South Australia in 1838 in the Winchester.

John Gower death
The South Australian Register 11/3/1869

Mary Ann Gower, John's widow, married Robert Chapman on 2/6/1873, at St George's Church Gawler. The marriage record includes the information that Robert was a 58 year old widower whose father's name was John, and Mary Ann was a 54 year old widow whose father's name was Robert Cramp. If she was 21 in 1838, as the immigration record says, then her age at her second marriage would have been more like more like 56 than 54. It is, of course, possible that she deliberately told Robert Chapman that she was 54 while knowing that she was 56, but it is also possible that, like many other people of that era, she was not quite sure of her own age.

There is a baptism record on that lends support to the claim that Mary Ann was 21 in 1838. A Mary Ann Cramp, daughter of Robert and Fanny, was baptized in Kingsnorth, Kent, on 26th April 1817. The parish of Kingsnorth is near the town of Ashford, and Mary Ann is known to have said that she was born in Ashford. Recall also that the marriage of Jesse Gower and Elizabeth Cramp was registered in the East Ashford district. And since an Elizabeth Cramp, daughter of Robert and Fanny, was baptized in Kingsnorth on 21st May 1820, it really looks probable that these people have been identified correctly. We remark that several siblings of Mary Ann and Elizabeth Cramp were also baptized in Kingsnorth.

Robert Chapman, Mary Ann's second husband, was a blacksmith of Lyndoch. He was baptized on 17th May 1822 in St Enoder, Cornwall, and had married Caroline Hammat in Gawler on 18th January 1850. I believe that this Caroline's father, James, was a brother of the John Hammat who married Elizabeth Harvey, and whose descendants were discussed above.

The South Australian Register 23/2/1850

Robert Chapman died at Williamstown on 19th April 1877. Mary Ann Chapman married Charles Foote on 27th March 1882, at the residence of a Mr Chegwidden in Gawler.

Chapman death
The South Australian Register 19/4/1877

The record marriage of Charles Foote and Mary Ann Chapman says that Charles was a 54 year old widower whose father's name was Joseph, and Mary Ann was a 63 year old widow whose father's name was Robert Cramp. Note that her age was again understated by a couple of years.

The Bunyip 30/4/1915

Mary Ann went on to recover those lost years, and a few more besides. There is a newspaper item reporting her 100th birthday, another reporting her 102nd birthday, one reporting her 105th birthday and one reporting her death at the age of 107, on 30th May 1920. These articles all say that she was born on 24th April 1813.

Irrespective of when she was actually born, these articles do provide definite information concerning the children of John and Mary Ann. The 1920 article says that there were 10 altogether, and gives the names of the six who were still living at the time of their mother's death. Since we know of three who died in childhood, only one remains to be identified. It seems likely that he was the John Edward Gower who married Georgina Millington in 1874, died in 1884 at the age of 33, and was buried at Williamstown on 8th April 1884. Observe that he was given the names of the two boys who had died in 1847.

The six who were alive in 1920 were named Sarah Ann, Louisa, Stephen, Ellen, George and William Henry. We end this section with a few words about their families and that of John Edward.

— Stephen and Sarah Ann —

According to the fagan haines web site, Stephen and Sarah Ann had the following children:

It is certainly quite plausible that Stephen and Sarah Ann were living at Lyndoch by May 1841. Lyndoch Valley was surveyed by Colonel Light in 1838, and newspaper articles show that a settlement was established there by 1841.


THIS splendid survey, belonging to the South Australian Company, and of which they were put in possession only in September last, is, we are told, rapidly assuming the appearance of a thriving settlement. Although located upon but a few months, it is said to have a larger population already than Gawler Town—its present number of inhabitants amounting to about one hundred souls. The ring of the anvil—the sound of the carpenters hammer—the sawing and splitting of timber in the neighbourhood—and the song of the ploughman on the plains—are said to give it that air of bustling activity, and that prospect of its resources being speedily drawn out, which its peculiar situation, and great natural advantages, renders so exceedingly desirable. About two hundred acres will be under cultivation in this survey alone during the ensuing season; and this, it is said will be increased to two thousand during the following year. The spirited manner in which Mr Browne has commenced operations is spoken of in the highest possible terms, and a confident expectation is entertained of his being rewarded with overflowing returns at the forthcoming harvest. Cockatoo Valley, in the same survey, and in the possession of John Hallett, Esq., has received the name of "Arno Vale" and is reported to have produced the best cheese in the province. The dairy under the mangement of this spirited proprietor is likely to take the lead of all other dairies in the colony, if our information be correct.

Article from the Southern Australian, 2 March 1841

There are some puzzling aspects to the fagan haines information. Since only three children of Stephen and Sarah Ann appear in South Australian birth registration records, what is the source of the information? It is conceivable that it comes from church records, but this is perhaps not so likely, since the dates given are (said to be) birth dates rather than baptism dates. I think the presumption must be that the information has been handed down through the family. Maybe an old family bible has the information written in it.

It is strange that Susan's birthplace is listed as "Lyndoch, Adelaide". Lyndoch is not Adelaide! Lyndoch births might have been registered at Adelaide, but Susan's birth was not registered. My guess is that the word "Adelaide" appears here by mistake. The other strange thing is that Walter's birthplace is listed as "Barossa Survey", showing that in this instance the information is taken from the birth registration record. This possibly casts some doubt over the other birthplaces. A family bible would probably only have birth dates, not places, and the given birth places may just be guesses based on the known fact that Stephen and Sarah Ann lived at Lyndoch. It may be unclear when they first moved to Lyndoch. Nevertheless, since Sarah Ann was described, on her death, as "one of Lyndoch's earliest residents", I think it is reasonably likely that all the children were born at Lyndoch.

Apart from government birth, death and marriage registration records, the digitized newspapers are my only source of information. The first mention I have found of Stephen Gower appears in the South Australian of September 12th 1848, reporting the transfer of the licence of the Lord Lyndoch, Lyndoch Valley, from John Randall to Stephen Gower. Mr Randall told the bench that he had the licence only since January, and he was leaving the house as the business was unsuited to him. Mr Gower stated that he had been here for eight years, farming. ("Here" undoubtedly means South Australia.)

The Lord Lyndoch licence was renewed in March 1849. At the hearing a magistrate observed that "the accommodations are reported not very good". Stephen said that he was proceeding with them, and "they should be all right soon". In September 1849 the bench heard an application for the transfer of the Lord Lyndoch licence from Stephen Gower to Thomas Rowland Jones. The applicant said, in answer to a question from the bench, that the house was completed. The application was at first granted; but it having been ascertained that the fourteen clear days notice required by the Act had not been given, the transfer was cancelled by the Bench.

On 9th March 1850 the Adelaide Observer published, in an appendix, the names of many hundreds of people who wished to publically express their confidence in Mr John Stephens, editor of the Adelaide Observer and South Australian Register. Stephen Gower's name appears in the list; he is described as a stockholder, Lyndoch Valley.

In June 1850 the licence of the Lord Lyndoch was transferred from Thomas Rowland Jones to Stephen Gower. Evidently the transfer in the other direction had been approved at some stage.

In the Adelaide Observer of September 18th 1852 there is an advertisement addressed to Captain Allen of the brig Punch: "DEAR SIR—We, the undersigned passengers, before separating, beg to express our sincere thanks to you for the very kind treatment we have received at your hands on our passage from Melbourne to Adelaide, and we have great pleasure in recommending your good brig Punch to any of our fellow-colonists who may have occasion to take a trip to any port she may be destined to. Wishing you every success in your future career, We remain, yours respectfully, ...". The 62 names that follow include those of Stephen Gower and John Gower. Presumably Stephen and John, like so many other South Australian men, had tried their luck at the Victorian goldfields.

new pub
South Australian Register 24/5/1855

At a meeting of the Barossa East Council on 7th September 1855 the members present signed a document granting leave to Mr. Stephen Gower for the removal of his licence from the present Lord Lyndoch Inn, in Barossa East, to a new and more commodious building adjacent, in Barossa West.

In the Adelaide Police Court on 25 October 1855, one Frederick Thomson was charged with horse-stealing, on the information of Stephen Gower, of Lyndoch Valley. The prosecutor appeared in the witness box in a state of intoxication, and His Worship severely reprimanded him for attempting to give evidence in such a state. Some impertinent reply was made by Mr.Gower, and Mr. Wigley directed that he should be locked up until he become sober. (See the South Australian Register, 26/10/1855.)

In an article Notes of a Ten Days' Tour to the Murray and the North, which appeared in the South Australian Register on March 27th 1856, a small party of travellers reported that "at Lyndoch Valley, good accommodation was secured at Stephen Gower's, whose house—to the credit of the indefatigable landlady be it spoken—was found to be one of the best regulated on the tour." There the travellers were accosted by a moderately stout man who favoured them with his views upon the Pope, Calvin, Martin Luther, Puseyism, the Scotch Kirk, and ecclesiastical matters generally, and they subsequently spent a sleepless night enduring the heat and the mosquitoes.

Stephen Gower died at Lyndoch on 24/2/1857. In June 1858 the licence of the Lord Lyndoch Inn, Lyndoch Township, was transferred from Mr George Potter to Mrs Sarah Anne Gower. Sarah continued to run the establishment until 1864. The dinners Mrs Gower provided for various organizations were universally praised.

In the evening a very large number of gentlemen sat down to an excelleut dinner provided by the hostess, Mrs. Gower. The long room in the second storey of the Lord Lyndoch Hotel, which extends along the whole width of the building, was crowded with guests. The viands were of the most recherché description, and every thing was done which was necessary for the accommodation of the company.
South Australian Register, Saturday 7 August 1858
The Judges and a large party of visitors dined during the day at Ditman's Hotel, having to leave for Gawler and the other distant places. The Society's dinner took place at the Lyndoch Hotel, Mrs. Gower's (both of which houses we may remark en passant, do great credit to the township in their very ample accommodations and comfort) ...
South Australian Advertiser, 17 February 1860
The ploughing being finished, and the Judges having inspected it, about 50 gentlemen assembled for dinner at the Lord Lyndoch Hotel, where Hostess Gower prepared a first-rate repast, ...
South Australian Weekly Chronicle, 10 August 1861
Shortly after 6 o'clock the dinner was held at the Lord Lyndoch Hotel. The hostess, Mrs. Gower, laid a capital spread, and the company who sat down numbered about 30 persons.
South Australian Register, 28 February 1862
An interesting match of cricket came off at Lyndoch Valley on Monday, March 17, between the Lyndoch and Williamstown Clubs. It resulted out of a challenge given by the Williamstown men, and being the first match between the rival clubs a large concourse of spectators was attracted. The wickets were pitched at 10 o'clock, and the game shortly after commenced. Mr. Rayner acted as umpire for the Lyndoch, and Mr. Whiteman for the Williamstown Club. The former had the first innings, and went out for 44 runs, and their opponents, who then went in, ran up a score of 168 runs. After partaking of an excellent spread, provided by Mrs. Gower, of the Lord Lyndoch, the Lyndoch Club went to the wickets and obtained only 50 runs, thus leaving the Williamstown Club the winners by 74 runs in one innings.
South Australian Register, 22 March 1862
The dinner was held in the Lodge-room at the Lord Lyndoch, and provided by the hostess, Mrs. Gower. About 57 sat down to a most excellent repast ...
Adelaide Observer, 23 August 1862
The dinner was provided by Mrs. Gower, of the Lord Lyndoch Hotel, in her usual excellent style, but I regret to say was very thinly attended.
The South Australian Advertiser, 12 September 1863
Our old and respected hostess, Mrs. Gower, who for many years has conducted the business of the Lord Lyndoch Hotel in a respectable and satisfactory manner, has retired from the cares of busness. She is succeeded by Mr. Excell, of Port Adelaide.
The South Australian Register, 18 February 1864

Mr Excell, who took over the licence of the Lord Lyndoch in 1864, rented the establishment from Sarah. By January 1866 he was insolvent. After Sarah's death on 3/1/1869 her son William became the licensee of the Lord Lyndoch, which I suppose he had inherited.

new pub
Adelaide Observer 16/1/1869

Sarah was buried on 5/1/1869 at Lyndoch.

To conclude this section, here is what I know about the families of the offspring of Stephen and Sarah Ann.

I have been unable to discover what became of Walter Gower (born February 1848). He was presumably the Walter Gower who was very nearly drowned after falling overboard from a fishing boat near Beachport, as reported in the Border Watch on 19/2/1879. I think the Frank Bevilaqua who was also in the boat must have been Walter's nephew.

Since Walter apparently does not appear in South Australia marriage or death records, my guess is that he moved interstate.

— James and Mary Ann —

It seems probable that, immediately after arriving in South Australia, James and Mary Ann and family went to Lyndoch, where James' brother Stephen was living. His brother John was also probably living at or near Lyndoch.

On 17th March 1853, James Gower of Lyndoch Valley was granted a cattle slaughtering licence.

According to newspaper reports of council meetings, Barossa East Council granted a slaughtering licence to M. A. Gower, Lyndoch Valley, on 24th September 1855, and received slaughtering returns from Mr. A. Gower on 5th November, and from M.  A.  Gower on 3rd December, 14th January (1856), 24th March and 21st April. At first I thought that this M. A. Gower was some man that I did not know about, but since the meeting of Barossa West Council on 7/10/1856 granted a slaughtering licence to Mrs M. A. Gower, Lyndoch Valley, it seems clear that the person in question was Mary Ann.

Presumably James and Mary Ann moved in mid 1856 from the district controlled by the East Barossa Council to that controlled by the West Barossa Council. My guess is that they were farmers first and foremost, with butchering as a sideline.

Barossa West Council granted James Gower a slaughtering licence on 8/3/1858.

At the meeting of Barossa West Council on 2/4/1856 the Ranger said that he had "detected the following persons infringing the Crown Lands Act, viz.: — Jabez Gosden, removing stone; Wilhelm Habel, raising stone; and James Gower, cutting timber." The Ranger was instructed to direct Mr. F. F. Turner to take the necessary steps for the prosecution.

I have not found any newspaper mentions of James or Mary Ann between 1858 and 1867. In the Lyndoch v. Williamstown cricket match mentioned above, J. Gower scored 7 not out for Williamstown; presumably this person was James Gower the younger, who by that time was married. In the return match the umpire provided by Williamstown was Mr J. Gower, but whether this was James senior or James junior or John, I do not know.

The issue of The Bunyip on May 11th 1867 carries a report of a court case in which John Richards the elder, on behalf of John Richards the younger, sued James Gower for £100 damages for "keeping a dog, knowing the same to be accustomed to kill mankind, whereby he was seriously injured."

Defendant pleaded not guilty, and that plaintiff provoked the dog, and was in consequence attacked.

John Richards:— I work at the Lyndoch Valley Gold Mining Company, and my house and plaintiff's are about 90 yards apart. I cautioned defendant about his dog, and he promised to either chain or muzzle him. My child was afterwards bitten by him in the face. I told him if he would pay the doctor's, expenses I should be content. He told me to go and be d — d. The child's speech is injured.
Cross-examined:— I lived in a house of defendant's, but the dog never attacked me, and I never knew it bite anyone else but my children.

Elizabeth Richards:— I was accustomed to fetch Mrs. Gower's cows for her. The second time my brother was bitten he was with me, and the dog came round the house and caught hold of his face. Mrs. Gower said it served him right.
Cross-examined:— I never saw my brother pull the dog's tail or his hind leg.

Elizabeth Richards, mother of plaintiff:— My little boy accompanied his sister to Mrs. Gower's, and when he came back he was so bitten he could not even cry. His sleeve was covered with blood. His face was bitten right to the jaw. Mrs. Gower came to my house to his assistance. The doctor came and dressed the wound. The child cannot chew properly, as he lost two teeth by the bite. He cannot speak as he used.

L. Richter:— I practice medicine at Lyndoch and I attended Mrs. Richard's little boy. When I arrived he was covered with blood from a wound on the face, and part of his jaw was broken. A fall on the ground would not injure it so. I do not think the injuries will permanently affect the child's powers of speech or mastication. The marks will be permanent. I saw the boy about four times.

Thomas Canty, sawyer. Williamstown:— said he cautioned Richards's children not to tease the dog, or they would be bitten.

James Gower:— I am the owner of a dog. It is a kind of a sheep dog. I do not chain it, for I never knew it to kill anyone. I have 15 grandchildren, who are often at my house. I have often seen little Richards on the dog's back. The boy's father came to me once, and told me if I caught the boy teasing the dog to give him the stick.

Mary Ann Gower:— On the day in question the little boy caught hold of the dog's ear and the tail. I told him not to do so. Soon afterwards I saw the boy put his hand to his mouth and run away.

Wm. Daly:— The dog never hurts any of my children, and I do not think it vicious.

Edward Vinnal:— I know the dog and always considered him harmless.

Frederic Jarman:— I live about 200 yards from Mr. Gower's, and I know the dog. I do not think it savage. I have seen Richards' children tormenting it. I have since this accident chastised the boy for pulling the dog about.

James Gower, jun.:— I know my father's dog and always thought it quiet. I have four children, who are in the habit of playing with it.

Verdict: for plaintiff — damages £20.

Mary Ann Gower died at her residence near Williamstown on 27th May 1882, aged 83. James Gower senior died at his residence, Mount Caddy, near Williamstown, on 31st May 1884. He was aged 82.

Mary Ann death
The South Australian Register 10/6/1882
James death
The Bunyip 13/6/1884

Mary Ann, eldest daughter of James and Mary Ann, married Edward Vinall in Tenterden, Kent, on 23/8/1851. Their children were all born in South Australia: Mary Ann (December 24th 1852), William Edward (July 30th 1854), Thomas (1855), Lucy (1859), Elizabeth Ann (1862), Arthur John (1864) and George Albert (1867).

A 20 year old Elizabeth Gower married John Rushall at Gawler on 18/1/1853. They had a daughter named Flavia, born on 19/11/1853, and two children born in Victoria: Albert in 1855 and Johinna in 1857. John Rushall died in 1857, but Elizabeth Rushall had two more sons, Frederick William and Alexander. Victorian death records say that Elizabeth Rushall died in 1911 aged 75, and that her parents were Jno and Elizth Gower. But surely her parents were really James and Mary Ann!

It seems likely that Sarah, the next daughter of James and Mary Ann, married Stephen Jarvis in Biddenden on April 1st 1852, and remained in England.

Amy Gower, born in about 1837, married Samuel Sands at the Gawler Registry Office on February 13th 1861. They had children named Elisabeth (1862), George Sion (1863), Samuel Walter (1864), William (1866), Mercy (1868), Henry (1871), Louisa Esther (1873), Susan Annie (1876), Samuel James (1879) and Francis Amy (1881).

Ellen Gower, born 1840, married Jabez Gosden in Williamstown in 1862, and had two children: Rosa Edith (born 1862) and Jabez Harold (born 1864). The elder Jabez died in 1864, and then on 22/5/1872 Ellen married Edmund Major Wilson. Edmund and Ellen had children named Daisey Jane Granville (1873), Violet Nellie (1875), Elsie Ella Agnes (1876), Edward Algeron Bertram (1877), Lillie Florence Naomi (1878), James Hedley Shaftsbury (1879) and Ellie Amy Mabel (1881).

Jane, whose birth was registered in the Tenterden district (Kent) in the second quarter of 1842, was baptized in Headcorn on 21/6/1842. She appears in the 1851 census and the Charlotte Jane passenger list, but seems to have vanished after that. According to the report of the arrival of the Charlotte Jane in the South Australian Register four people died on the voyage, but the names of the four are given, and Jane Gower was not one of them.

Eliza Gower, whose birth was registered in the Tenterden district in the first quarter of 1850, married John Boomer at Williamstown on 6/1/1869. They had children named John Charles (1869), Eliza Isabella (1870), Mercy Jane (1873), Flavia Letitia (1874), Hurtle Alexander (1877), Mary Ellison (1879), Walter James (1882), William Albert (1884), Henry Edward Oscar (1887) and Elizabeth Phillepena (1889). John Boomer died in 1890, and Eliza married Roper Whiteman on 7/12/1896 at Williamstown.

James Gower married Hannah Savary at Lyndoch Valley on 28/11/1859. The South Australian birth registration index includes eleven children: James William (born near Williamstown on 16/10/1860), Albertina (born Williamstown on 2/7/1862), Emma Ellen (born Williamstown on 4/5/1864), Florence Eveline (born Williamstown on 17/8/1866), Walter James (born Williamstown on 27/6/1868), Frederick Jesse (born Williamstown on 8/9/1870), Stephen Charles (born Williamstown on 22/7/1873), Annie Susan (born Williamstown on 2/6/1876), Thomas Henry (born Williamstown on 31/5/1879), Ethel May Bethiah (born Williamstown on 14/8/1882), David Percy (born Newbrook, near Williamstown, on 1/11/1884), Catherine Jessie (born Williamstown on 7/6/1888). It seems highly probable that Albertina was really Albert Earnest, some strange transcription error having occurred. A Patterson family history book says that Sarah Ann Patterson married Albert Earnest Gower, son of James and Hannah Gower of Williamstown, on 18/10/1882. The Biographical index of South Australians—I suspect not independently of the Patterson genealogy research—gives Albert's birth date as 2/7/1862, and this certainly fits perfectly with other recorded information, such as his age at death (78 on 11/8/1940). So at least somebody has decided that Albertina was really Albert, but whether they they viewed the original registration record I do not know.

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The Advertiser 5/1/1935

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