A computer mediated or delivered module or unit, that stands by itself, that provides a meaningful learning experience in a planned learning context. The emphasis on "learning experience" is to acknowledge the different types of interaction a learner may have with the "learning object". There is also an explicit reference to the planned learning context as opposed to the spontaneous, accidental learning that occurs when one is engaged in other activity. The learning object is being used with an intention of learning.
The follow papers are theoretical in nature. For information about how these concepts are actually implemented, please visit the papers section on SCORM implementations issues.
What is a learning object, technically?
(Authors: Albert Ip, Prof Iain Morrison & Mike Currie)
After analysing the reuse of learning resources from different pedagogical paradigms, this paper argues that there is an obvious gap between the learning technology community and the education community. The terms "learning resource" or "learning object" are not native to the education community. The education community is not interested in issues of reuse, grain size, technical properties or even "learning object". This paper suggests that a way forward is to have a clear demarcation of responsibility between learning technologist, subject matter experts and instructional designers.
(Presented at WebNet2001 conference, 22nd to 26th October, 2001 Orlanda, USA)
Learning Objects in Different Pedagogical Paradigms
(Authors: Albert Ip & Prof Iain Morrison)Based on the review of several pedagogical paradigms, this paper attempts to
(Presented at ASCILITE 2001 conference)
Experienced-Based Pedagogical Designs for eLearning
(Authors: Albert Ip & Som Naidu)
In this paper, we discuss a selection of experience-based pedagogical designs, which stand to make the most of the opportunities afforded by information and communications technology. In the literature on experience-based pedagogical designs there is no clear distinction made between first person experience and third person experience (also seen as stories). In an information and communications technology-based learning (ICT) environment, reference to the first person is inherent in the design, and stories are seen as learning resources. Hence, in this paper we examine the potential role of ICT from two angles:
(Published in Education Technology vol XLI No 5, September-October 2001 pp53-58 Magazine for Managers of Change in Education, Publisher: Educational Technology Publications)
Learning Objects - Whose are they?
(Authors: Albert Ip, Prof Alison Young & ProfessorIain Morrison)
There has been a recent surge of interest in so-called Learning Management Systems - generally Web-based technologies which facilitate student access to, and participation in, a course or program. Closer inspection show that although there are some useful learning aids in terms of information access, chat forums and review, the major emphasis is on management - of content, learner and learner progress. The paper looks beyond this to using technology to design and deliver, within a management framework, interactive and student/teacher selected learning events - which we call dynamic 'learning objects'. We provide a rationale for the approach and a technical framework for constructing complying prototypes. Some prospective applications for further learning analysis are discussed.
Albert Ip (albert@DLS.au.com Digital Learning Systems P/L.)